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BACKGROUND Vibrio parahaemolyticus is abundant in the aquatic environment particularly in warmer waters and is the leading cause of seafood borne gastroenteritis worldwide. Prior to 1995, numerous V. parahaemolyticus serogroups were associated with disease, however, in that year an O3:K6 serogroup emerged in Southeast Asia causing large outbreaks and rapid(More)
BACKGROUND Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an aquatic, halophilic, Gram-negative bacterium, first discovered in 1950 in Japan during a food-poisoning outbreak. Infections resulting from consumption of V. parahaemolyticus have increased globally in the last 10 years leading to the bacterium's classification as a newly emerging pathogen. In 1996 the first(More)
This study shows that naturally occurring Vibrio predatory bacteria (VPB) exert a major role in controlling pathogenic vibrios in seawater and shellfish. The growth and persistence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus were assessed in natural seawater and in the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. The pathogens examined were V. vulnificus(More)
There are common themes among bacteriophage-encoded virulence factors, which include the well-characterized bacterial toxins and proteins that alter antigenicity as well as several new classes of bacteriophage-encoded proteins such as superantigens, effectors translocated by a type III secretion system, and proteins required for intracellular survival and(More)
Nucleotide sequences of the mdh gene encoding the metabolic enzyme malate dehydrogenase (MDH) were determined for 44 strains representing the major lineages of Escherichia coli and the eight subspecies of Salmonella enterica. Sequence diversity was four times greater in S. enterica than in E. coli, and in both species the rate of amino acid substitution was(More)
Subspecies 1 of Salmonella enterica is responsible for almost all Salmonella infections of warm-blooded animals. Within subspecies 1 there are over 2,300 known serovars that differ in their prevalence and the diseases that they cause in different hosts. Only a few of these serovars are responsible for most Salmonella infections in humans and domestic(More)
A reference collection of 72 strains representing 37 serovars of Salmonella subspecies I has been established for use in research on genetic and phenotypic variation in natural populations. Included are isolates of the host-adapted serovars S. choleraesuis, S. dublin, S. gallinarum, S. paratyphi A, S. paratyphi B, S. paratyphi C, S. pullorum, S. sendai, S.(More)
A multilocus enzyme electrophoresis analysis of 96 strains of the salmonellae distinguished 80 electrophoretic types (ETs) and placed them in eight groups, seven of which correspond precisely to the seven taxonomic groups (I, II, IIIa, IIIb, IV, V, and VI) previously defined on the basis of biotype and genomic DNA hybridization. In addition, multilocus(More)
CTXphi is a filamentous, lysogenic bacteriophage whose genome encodes cholera toxin, the primary virulence factor produced by Vibrio cholerae. CTX prophages in O1 El Tor and O139 strains of V. cholerae are found within arrays of genetically related elements integrated at a single locus within the V. cholerae large chromosome. The prophages of O1 El Tor and(More)
Acquisition of genomic islands plays a central part in bacterial evolution as a mechanism of diversification and adaptation. Genomic islands are non-self-mobilizing integrative and excisive elements that encode diverse functional characteristics but all contain a recombination module comprised of an integrase, associated attachment sites and, in some cases,(More)