E. F. Malagodi

Learn More
Pigeons were exposed to self-control procedures that involved illumination of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as a form of token reinforcement. In a discrete-trials arrangement, subjects chose between one and three LEDs; each LED was exchangeable for 2-s access to food during distinct posttrial exchange periods. In Experiment 1, subjects generally preferred(More)
Rats' lever pressing produced tokens according to a 20-response fixed-ratio schedule. Sequences of token schedules were reinforced under a second-order schedule by presentation of periods when tokens could be exchanged for food pellets. When the exchange period schedule was a six-response fixed ratio, patterns of completing the component token schedules(More)
Lever pressing by 2 squirrel monkeys was maintained under fixed-interval 6-min and fixed-interval 2-min schedules of electric-shock presentation. Preference for these schedules was assessed during three experimental phases. In all phases, responses on one lever produced shock according to one or the other fixed-interval schedule, and responses on a second,(More)
In the initial link of a complex schedule, one discriminative stimulus was presented and lever pressing produced tokens on fixed-ratio schedules. In the terminal link, signalled by a second discriminative stimulus, deposits of the tokens produced food. With two rats, the terminal link was presented after each sixth component schedule of token reinforcement(More)
Four experiments were conducted in which lever pressing by squirrel monkeys was maintained under multiple, mixed, or chained schedules of electric-shock presentation. In the first two experiments, a multiple schedule was employed in which a fixed-interval schedule of shock presentation alternated with a signaled two-minute component. Initially, no events(More)
TWO PIGEONS WERE EXPOSED TO A MULTIPLE SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT: in the presence of one discriminative stimulus, key pecks produced grain according to a fixed-ratio schedule; in the presence of a second discriminative stimulus, key pecks produced grain according to a variable-ratio schedule. The key-peck requirements in the two components were increased in(More)
THREE STRATEGIC SUGGESTIONS ARE OFFERED TO BEHAVIOR ANALYSTS WHO ARE CONCERNED WITH EXTENDING THE INTERESTS OF OUR DISCIPLINE INTO DOMAINS TRADITIONALLY ASSIGNED TO THE SOCIAL SCIENCES: (1) to expand our world-view perspectives beyond the boundaries commonly accepted by psychologists in general; (2) to build a cultural analytic framework upon the(More)
Many of the world's current problems are the result of behavior, and traditional appeals to mental determinants are again proving inadequate. The time for a behavioristic alternative appears ripe, yet many behaviorists seem to be becoming less behavioristic and more mentalistic. When confronted with the complexity of human behavior many are resorting to the(More)
Key pecking by pigeons was maintained on a chained fixed-interval 4-min (12-min for 1 subject) fixed-ratio 1 schedule of food presentation. Attacks toward a restrained and protected conspecific were recorded. In the first experiment, the amount of food presented per interval was manipulated across phases by varying the number of fixed ratios required in the(More)