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Future users of large data banks must be protected from having to know how the data is organized in the machine (the internal representation). A prompting service which supplies such information is not a satisfactory solution. Activities of users at terminals and most application programs should remain unaffected when the internal representation of data is(More)
In the near future, we can expect a great variety of languages to be proposed for interrogating and updating data bases. This paper attempts to provide a theoretical basis which may be used to determine how complete a selection capability is provided in a proposed data sublanguage independently of any host language in which the sublanguage may be embedded.(More)
During the last three or four years several investigators have been exploring “semantic models” for formatted databases. The intent is to capture (in a more or less formal way) more of the meaning of the data so that database design can become more systematic and the database system itself can behave more intelligently. Two major thrusts are(More)
  • E. F. Codd
  • 1971
Three principal types of language for data base manipulation are identified: the low-level, procedure-oriented (typified by the CODASYL-proposed DML), the intermediate level, algebraic (typified by the Project MAC MacAIMS language), and the high level, relational calculus-based data sublanguage, an example of which is described in this paper. The language(More)
  • E. F. Codd
  • 1971
Casual and other users of large formatted data bases need a simple tabular (relational) view of the data rather than a network or tree-structured view. This paper illustrates the removal of repeating groups, hierarchic and plex structures, and cross-referencing structures. Finally, the simplification of data base relations by normalization is discussed.