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The proteasome is the major ATP-dependent protease in eukaryotic cells, but limited structural information restricts a mechanistic understanding of its activities. The proteasome regulatory particle, consisting of the lid and base subcomplexes, recognizes and processes polyubiquitinated substrates. Here we used electron microscopy and a new heterologous(More)
The 26S proteasome is the major eukaryotic ATP-dependent protease, yet the detailed mechanisms used by the proteasomal heterohexameric AAA+ unfoldase to drive substrate degradation remain poorly understood. To perform systematic mutational analyses of individual ATPase subunits, we heterologously expressed the unfoldase subcomplex from Saccharomyces(More)
Each of us has a complex and reciprocal relationship with our environment. Based on limited knowledge of this interwoven set of influences and consequences, we constantly make choices: where to live, how to go to work, what brands to buy, what to do with our leisure time. These choices evolve into patterns, and these patterns become driving functions of our(More)
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