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Recent studies show that intracellular cholesterol levels can modulate the processing of amyloid precursor protein to Abeta peptide. Moreover, cholesterol-rich apoE-containing lipoproteins may also promote Abeta clearance. Agonists of the liver X receptor (LXR) transcriptionally induce genes involved in intracellular lipid efflux and transport, including(More)
Proliferating tumor cells use aerobic glycolysis to support their high metabolic demands. Paradoxically, increased glycolysis is often accompanied by expression of the lower activity PKM2 isoform, effectively constraining lower glycolysis. Here, we report the discovery of PKM2 activators with a unique allosteric binding mode. Characterization of how these(More)
CD4+ T helper (Th) cells can be classified into different types based on their cytokine profile. Cells with these polarized patterns of cytokine production have been termed Th1 and Th2, and can be distinguished functionally by the production of IFN-gamma and IL-4, respectively. These phenotypes are crucial in determining the type of immune response that(More)
IL-33 (IL-1F11) is a recently described member of the IL-1 family of cytokines that stimulates the generation of cells, cytokines, and Igs characteristic of a type 2 immune response. IL-33 mediates signal transduction through ST2, a receptor expressed on Th2 and mast cells. In this study, we demonstrate that IL-33 and ST2 form a complex with IL-1R accessory(More)
Aberrant cytokine expression has been proposed as an underlying cause of psoriasis, although it is unclear which cytokines play critical roles. Interleukin (IL)-23 is expressed in human psoriasis and may be a master regulator cytokine. Direct intradermal administration of IL-23 in mouse skin, but not IL-12, initiates a tumor necrosis factor-dependent, but(More)
Commitment of T helper 1 (Th1) or Th2 populations developing during an immune response to a pathogen, or an inappropriate immune response to an allergen or autoantigen, may determine the difference between health and chronic disease. We show that strongly polarized Th1 and Th2 populations assessed by immunoassay are heterogeneous using flow cytometry to(More)
The C-type lectin-like receptor CD161, which has recently been described to promote T cell expansion, is expressed on a discrete subset of human CD4 T cells. The function of such cells, however, has remained elusive. We now demonstrate that CD161(+) CD4 T cells comprise a circulating and gut-resident T helper 17 (Th17) cell population. During Crohn's(More)
We have previously shown that dendritic cells isolated after overnight culture, which can express B7 and are potent stimulators of naive T cell proliferation, are relatively poor at inducing the proliferation of a panel of murine T helper 1 (Th1) clones. Maximal stimulation of Th1 clones was achieved using unseparated splenic antigen presenting cells (APC).(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease leading to motor neuron cell death, but recent studies suggest that non-neuronal cells may contribute to the pathological mechanisms involved. Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscle growth whose function can be inhibited using neutralizing antibodies. In this study, we used(More)
Sllmms.ry We have previously shown that dendritic cells isolated after overnight culture, which can express B7 and are potent stimulators of naive T cell proliferation, are relatively poor at inducing the proliferation of a panel of murine T helper 1 (Thl) clones. Maximal stimulation of Thl clones was achieved using unseparated splenic antigen presenting(More)