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Internal initiation of protein synthesis in eukaryotes is accomplished by recruitment of ribosomes to structured internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs), which are located in certain viral and cellular messenger RNAs. An IRES element in cricket paralysis virus (CrPV) can directly assemble 80S ribosomes in the absence of canonical initiation factors and(More)
Recognition of lipids by proteins is important for their targeting and activation in many signaling pathways, but the mechanisms that regulate such interactions are largely unknown. Here, we found that binding of proteins to the ubiquitous signaling lipid phosphatidic acid (PA) depended on intracellular pH and the protonation state of its phosphate(More)
Metabolic adaptation is essential for cell survival during nutrient deprivation. We report that eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K), which is activated by AMP-kinase (AMPK), confers cell survival under acute nutrient depletion by blocking translation elongation. Tumor cells exploit this pathway to adapt to nutrient deprivation by reactivating the(More)
This paper addresses the problem of building natural language based grammars and language models for directory assistance applications that use automatic speech recognition. As input, one is given an electronic version of a standard phone book, and the output is a grammar or language model that will accept all the ways in which one might ask for a(More)
The signal transduction and activation of RNA (STAR) family of RNA-binding proteins, whose members are evolutionarily conserved from yeast to humans, are important for a number of developmental decisions. For example, in the mouse, quaking proteins (QKI-5, QKI-6, and QKI-7) are essential for embryogenesis and myelination, whereas a closely related protein(More)
Cricket Paralysis virus (CrPV) is a member of the Dicistroviridae family of RNA viruses, which infect a broad range of insect hosts, including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila has emerged as an effective system for studying innate immunity because of its powerful genetic techniques and the high degree of gene and pathway conservation.(More)
Signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin, complex 1 (mTORC1), positively regulates the transcription of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and the synthesis of ribosomal proteins, thereby promoting the complex process of ribosome biogenesis. The major rRNAs are transcribed as a single precursor, which must be processed to create the 5.8S, 18S and 28S rRNAs. We(More)
Stress granules (SGs) are dynamic cytosolic aggregates containing messenger ribonucleoproteins and target poly-adenylated (A)-mRNA. A key component of SGs is Ras-GAP SH3 domain binding protein-1 (G3BP1), which in part mediates protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions. SGs are modulated during infection by several viruses, however, the function and(More)
Translation of many cellular and viral mRNAs is directed by internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs). Several proteins that enhance IRES activity through interactions with IRES elements have been discovered. However, the molecular basis for the IRES-activating function of the IRES-binding proteins remains unknown. Here, we report that NS1-associated protein 1(More)
The dicistrovirus intergenic internal ribosome entry site (IGR IRES) directly recruits the ribosome and initiates translation using a non-AUG codon. A subset of IGR IRESs initiates translation in either of two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs), resulting in expression of the 0 frame viral structural polyprotein and an overlapping +1 frame ORFx. A U-G(More)