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Of 11 genes involved in nonspecific X-linked mental retardation (MRX), three encode regulators or effectors of the Rho GTPases, suggesting an important role for Rho signaling in cognitive function. It remains unknown, however, how mutations in Rho-linked genes lead to MRX. Here we report that oligophrenin-1, a Rho-GTPase activating protein that is absent in(More)
The acquisition of a motile and invasive phenotype is an important step in the development of tumors and ultimately metastasis. This step requires the abrogation of cell-cell contacts, the remodeling of the extracellular matrix and of cell-matrix interactions, and finally the movement of the cell mediated by the actin cytoskeleton. Evidence for(More)
The AF-6 protein is a multidomain protein that contains two potential Ras-binding domains within its N terminus. Because of this feature, AF-6 has been isolated in both two-hybrid and biochemical approaches and is postulated to be a potential Ras-effector protein. Herein, we show that it is specifically the first Ras-binding domain of AF-6 that mediates(More)
A consistent feature of neurons in patients with mental retardation is abnormal dendritic structure and/or alterations in dendritic spine morphology. Deficits in the regulation of the dendritic cytoskeleton affect both the structure and function of dendrites and synapses and are believed to underlie mental retardation in some instances. In support of this,(More)
Lamination of cortical regions of the vertebrate brain depends on glial-guided neuronal migration. The conserved polarity protein Par6alpha localizes to the centrosome and coordinates forward movement of the centrosome and soma in migrating neurons. The cytoskeletal components that produce this unique form of cell polarity and their relationship to polarity(More)
Understanding how oncogenic transformation sensitizes cells to apoptosis may provide a strategy to kill tumor cells selectively. We previously developed a cell-free system that recapitulates oncogene dependent apoptosis as reflected by activation of caspases, the core of the apoptotic machinery. Here, we show that this activation requires a previously(More)
The formation and elaboration of axonal and dendritic morphologies are fundamental aspects of neuronal polarization critical for information processing. In general, developing CNS neurons elaborate one axon and multiple dendrites in response to intracellular and extracellular cues, so as to transmit and receive information, respectively. The molecular(More)
Although casein kinase 1δ (CK1δ) is at the center of multiple signaling pathways, its role in the expansion of CNS progenitor cells is unknown. Using mouse cerebellar granule cell progenitors (GCPs) as a model for brain neurogenesis, we demonstrate that the loss of CK1δ or treatment of GCPs with a highly selective small molecule inhibits GCP expansion. In(More)
During normal cerebellar development, the remarkable expansion of granule cell progenitors (GCPs) generates a population of granule neurons that outnumbers the total neuronal population of the cerebral cortex, and provides a model for identifying signaling pathways that may be defective in medulloblastoma. While many studies focus on identifying pathways(More)
Although mechanisms underlying early steps in cerebellar development are known, evidence is lacking on genetic and epigenetic changes during the establishment of the synaptic circuitry. Using metagene analysis, we report pivotal changes in multiple reactomes of epigenetic pathway genes in cerebellar granule cells (GCs) during circuit formation. During this(More)