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The old, red stars that constitute the bulges of galaxies, and the massive black holes at their centres, are the relics of a period in cosmic history when galaxies formed stars at remarkable rates and active galactic nuclei (AGN) shone brightly as a result of accretion onto black holes. It is widely suspected, but unproved, that the tight correlation(More)
We report on zero field cooled magnetization relaxation experiments on a concentrated frozen ferrofluid exhibiting a low temperature superspin glass transition. With a method initially developed for spin glasses, we investigate the field dependence of the relaxations that take place after different aging times. We extract the typical number of correlated(More)
In this paper we investigate the superspin glass behavior of a concentrated assembly of interacting maghemite nanoparticles and compare it to that of canonical atomic spin glass systems. ac versus temperature and frequency measurements show evidence of a superspin glass transition taking place at low temperature. In order to fully characterize the superspin(More)
Dielectric spectroscopy can be used to determine the dipole moment of colloidal particles from which important interfacial electrokinetic properties, for instance their zeta potential, can be deduced. Unfortunately, dielectric spectroscopy measurements are hampered by electrode polarization (EP). In this article, we review several procedures to compensate(More)
Primarily used as etch mask, single layer hydrogen silsesquioxane has never been investigated for lift-off technique. In this article, we propose a new technique where a single layer of hydrogen silsesquioxane, a negative tone electron beam resist, is used to make lift-off of germanium and platinum. Removal of exposed hydrogen silsesquioxane is tested for(More)
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