E. Dinant Kroese

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This report provides guidance for using the dose-descriptor T25 from animal studies as a basis for quantitative risk characterisation of non-threshold carcinogens. T25 is presently used within the European Union for setting specific concentration limits for carcinogens in relation to labelling of preparations (formulations). The T25 is defined as the(More)
The thresholds of toxicological concern (TTCs) define limit values for substances of unknown toxicity below which dietary intake is considered to be of no concern to human health. The TTC concept has already been used for risk assessment of e.g. food contaminants or flavoring substances and is in discussion to be applied to other classes of compounds such(More)
We were interested to study the relationship between DNA lesions, DNA repair, mutation fixation, and tumour development. Therefore, mice harbouring lacZ reporter genes and being either wild-type or defective in the DNA excision repair gene XPA, were treated with the genotoxic carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene at an oral dose of 13 mg/kg b.w. (3 times/week). At(More)
In an extended OECD 407 study protocol, including immune parameters, male Riv:Tox Wistar SPF rats were treated for 35 days with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]p) (3, 10, 30, or 90 mg/kg body weight) by gavage. Oral administration of B[a]p in rats resulted not only in general toxicity, as indicated by the effects on body weight, but also in immunotoxicity, as indicated(More)
Because of the relatively high human oral exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compared to the inhalation exposure, the known carcinogenicity of this type of compounds and the limited data from oral studies available with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, an oral carcinogenicity study was performed using benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) as a PAH(More)
In the present study a cancer risk assessment of occupational exposure to cyclophosphamide (CP), a genotoxic carcinogenic antineoplastic agent, was carried out following two approaches based on (1) data from an animal study and (2) data on primary and secondary tumors in CP-treated patients. Data on the urinary excretion of CP in health care workers were(More)
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies are considered vital and economic elements for achieving global CO2 reduction targets, and is currently introduced worldwide (for more information on CCS, consult for example the websites of the International Energy Agency (http://www.iea.org/topics/ccs/) and the Global CCS Institute(More)
The objectives of REACH cannot be achieved under the current risk assessment approach. A change in mind set among all the relevant stakeholders is needed: risk assessment should move away from a labor-intensive and animal-consuming approach to intelligent and pragmatic testing, by combining exposure and hazard data effectively and trying to group chemicals(More)
Previously we showed a battery consisting of CALUX transcriptional activation assays, the ReProGlo assay, and the embryonic stem cell test, and zebrafish embryotoxicity assay as 'apical' tests to correctly predict developmental toxicity for 11 out of 12 compounds, and to explain the one false negative [7]. Here we report on applying this battery within the(More)
Freshly isolated rat hepatocytes were used to study the mechanism of cell death induced by N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (N-OH-AAF). Exposure to 1.0 mM N-OH-AAF resulted in more than 90% cell death (as measured by LDH leakage) of hepatocytes isolated from male rats within 6 hr. Only 36% of the hepatocytes isolated from female rats died within this period.(More)