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Rats and mice are attracted by novel objects. They readily approach novel objects and explore them with their vibrissae, nose and forepaws. It is assumed that such a single explorative episode leaves a lasting and complex memory trace, which includes information about the features of the object explored, as well as where and even when the object was(More)
Human episodic memory refers to the recollection of an unique past experience in terms of its details, its locale, and temporal occurrence. Episodic memory, even in principle, has been difficult to demonstrate in non-verbal mammals. Previously, we provided evidence that mice are able to form an integrated memory for "what," "where," and "when" aspects of(More)
Human episodic memory refers to the recollection of an unique past experience in terms of what happened, and where and when it happened. Factoring out the issue of conscious recollection, episodic memory, even at the behavioral level, has been difficult to demonstrate in non-human mammals. Although, it was previously shown that rodents can associate what(More)
The conscious recollection of unique personal experiences in terms of their details (what), their locale (where) and temporal occurrence (when) is known as episodic memory and is thought to require a 'self-concept', autonoetic awareness/conciousness, and the ability to subjectively sense time. It has long been held that episodic memory is unique to humans,(More)
Episodic memory refers to the conscious recollection of a unique past experience in terms of "what" happened and "where" and "when" it happened. Since deficits in episodic memory are found in a number of neuropsychiatric diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, for which several pharmacological, lesion and genetic animal models are available, there is a need(More)
The brain's histaminergic system has been implicated in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory, as well as brain reward and reinforcement. Our past pharmacological and lesion studies indicated that the brain's histamine system exerts inhibitory effects on the brain's reinforcement respective reward system reciprocal to mesolimbic dopamine(More)
Dopamine plays an important role in learning and memory processes. A deficit of this neurotransmitter as it is apparent in Alzheimer's disease (AD) may contribute to cognitive decline, a major symptom of AD patients. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether or not stimulation of the dopaminergic system leads to an improvement of cognitive function and(More)
In this study, we have investigated the contribution of oligodendrocytic connexin47 (Cx47) and astrocytic Cx30 to panglial gap junctional networks as well as myelin maintenance and function by deletion of both connexin coding DNAs in mice. Biocytin injections revealed complete disruption of oligodendrocyte-to-astrocyte coupling in the white matter of 10- to(More)
Ceramide synthase 1 (CerS1) catalyzes the synthesis of C18 ceramide and is mainly expressed in the brain. Custom-made antibodies to a peptide from the C-terminal region of the mouse CerS1 protein yielded specific immunosignals in neurons but no other cell types of wild type brain, but the CerS1 protein was not detected in CerS1-deficient mouse brains. To(More)
Gap junctions mediate communication between many cell types in the brain. Gap junction channels are composed of membrane-spanning connexin (Cx) proteins, allowing the cell-to-cell passage of small ions and metabolites. Cx43 is the main constituent of the brain-spanning astrocytic gap junctional network, controlling activity-related changes in ion and(More)