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SUMMARY The morphology of 50 normal tricuspid valves was studied. The surface of the leaflets was divided into three zones: (1) the rough zone, into which most of the chordae tendineae are inserted, (2) the basal zone, and (3) the clear zone, which lies between the rough and basal zones. Five types of chordae were distinguished by their morphology and mode(More)
BACKGROUND The molecular basis of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, a primary myocardial disorder that results in reduced contractile function, is largely unknown. Some cases of familial dilated cardiomyopathy are caused by mutations in cardiac cytoskeletal proteins; this finding implicates defects in contractile-force transmission as one mechanism(More)
Dynamic obstruction to left ventricular (LV) outflow was recognized from the earliest (50 years ago) clinical descriptions of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and has proved to be a complex phenomenon unique in many respects, as well as arguably the most visible and well-known pathophysiologic component of this heterogeneous disease. Over the past 5(More)
In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), malfunctioning sarcomeric protein, myocyte hypertrophy, fiber disarray, and interstitial fibrosis interfere with systolic myocardial mechanics despite clinically hyperdynamic systolic function. We evaluated local left ventricular (LV) mechanics in 72 patients with HCM and 32 control subjects using 2-dimensional velocity(More)
The implantation of large numbers of permanent cardiac pacemakers carries with it the responsibility for continual reassessment of all aspects of patient management. Experience with more than 4,000 pacemaker implants and replacements since 1963 has led to the development of a comprehensive computer-assisted data collection, management, and reporting system(More)