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The zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) is a region at the posterior margin of the limb bud that induces mirror-image duplications when grafted to the anterior of a second limb. We have isolated a vertebrate gene, Sonic hedgehog, related to the Drosophila segment polarity gene hedgehog, which is expressed specifically in the ZPA and in other regions of the(More)
Proper limb growth and patterning requires signals from the zone of polarizing activity in the posterior mesoderm and from the overlying apical ectodermal ridge (AER). Sonic hedgehog and Fgf-4, respectively, have recently been identified as candidates for these signals. We have dissected the roles of these secreted proteins in early limb development by(More)
Differentiation of somites into sclerotome, dermatome, and myotome is controlled by a complex set of inductive interactions. The ability of axial midline tissues, the notochord and floor plate, to induce sclerotome has been well documented and has led to models in which ventral somite identity is specified by signals derived from the notochord and floor(More)
The apical ectodermal ridge of the vertebrate limb bud lies at the junction of the dorsal and ventral ectoderm and directs patterning of the growing limb. Its formation is directed by the boundary between cells that do and cells that do not express the gene Radical fringe. This is similar to the establishment of the margin cells at the Drosophila wing(More)
The vertebrate Hox genes have been shown to be important for patterning the primary and secondary axes of the developing vertebrate embryo. The function of these genes along the primary axis of the embryo has been generally interpreted in the context of positional specification and homeotic transformation of axial structures. The way in which these genes(More)
Subclasses of motor neurons are generated at different positions along the rostrocaudal axis of the spinal cord. One feature of the rostrocaudal organization of spinal motor neurons is a position-dependent expression of Hox genes, but little is known about how this aspect of motor neuron subtype identity is assigned. We have used the expression profile of(More)
The chicken inner ear is a remarkably complex structure consisting of eight morphologically distinct sensory organs. Unraveling how these sensory organs are specified during development is key to understanding how such a complex structure is generated. Previously, we have shown that each sensory organ in the chicken inner ear arises independently in the(More)
Strong's Luxoid (1stD) is a semidominant mouse mutation in which heterozygotes show preaxial hindlimb polydactyly, and homozygotes show fore- and hindlimb polydactyly. The digit patterns of these polydactylous limbs resemble those caused by polarizing grafts, since additional digits with posterior character are present at the anterior side of the limb. Such(More)
Studies of the innervation of limb muscles by spinal motor neurons have helped to define mechanisms by which axons establish trajectories to their targets. Related motor axons select dorsal or ventral pathways at the base of the limb, raising the question of how these alternate trajectories are specified. EphA signaling has been proposed to control the(More)
The adrenal cortex is a critical steroidogenic endocrine tissue, generated at least in part from the coelomic epithelium of the urogenital ridge. Neither the intercellular signals that regulate cortical development and maintenance nor the lineage relationships within the adrenal are well defined. We have explored adrenal Shh activity and found that Shh is(More)