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Working memory performance is influenced by dopamine activation of D1 family dopamine receptors in the prefrontal cortex; working memory performance is maximal at moderate stimulation of D1 family receptors and is reduced by either higher or lower levels of D1 stimulation. The neuronal mechanisms that underlie this complex relationship are not yet(More)
Prefrontal cortical functioning depends on dopaminergic neurotransmission, which in turn depends on a complex signal transduction pathway including protein phosphatase-1 (PP1). Targeted localization of PP1 by the scaffolding proteins, spinophilin and neurabin, is critical for dopaminergic modulation of glutamate neurotransmission. In this study, we report(More)
Blockade of D2 family dopamine receptors (D2Rs) is a fundamental property of antipsychotics, and the degree of striatal D2R occupancy has been related to antipsychotic and motor effects of these drugs. Recent studies suggest the D2R occupancy of antipsychotics may differ in extrastriatal regions compared with the dorsal striatum. We studied this issue in(More)
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) mediate important modulatory glutamatergic influences throughout the brain. However, the specific localization and functions of group I mGluR subtypes (mGluR1alpha and mGluR5) in cortical neurotransmission are not well known, particularly in primates. To address this issue, we used immunoelectron microscopy to(More)
D1 family receptors (D1R) in prefrontal cortex (PFC) are critical for normal cognition and are implicated in pathological states such as schizophrenia. The two D1R subtypes, D1 and D5, cannot be pharmacologically distinguished but have important functional differences. To understand their contributions to cortical function, we quantified their localization(More)
Dopamine, acting at the D1 family receptors (D1R) is critical for the functioning of the amygdala, including fear conditioning and cue-induced reinstatement of drug self administration. However, little is known about the different contributions of the two D1R subtypes, D(1) and D(5). We identified D(1)-immunoreactive patches in the primate that appear(More)
The brain circuitry thought to be involved in stress responses includes several nuclei of the extended amygdala. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is thought to be involved in the generation of sustained, nonspecific anxiety. Previous behavioral and electrophysiological experiments demonstrate that glutamate systems are involved in anxiety-like(More)
Functional variations in cerebral cortical activity are accompanied by local changes in blood flow, but the mechanisms underlying this physiological coupling are not well understood. Here we report that dopamine, a neurotransmitter normally associated with neuromodulatory actions, may directly affect local cortical blood flow. Using light and(More)
Working memory (WM) is a core cognitive process that depends upon activation of D1 family receptors (D1R) and inhibitory interneurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). D1R are comprised of the D(1) and D(5) subtypes, and D(5) has a 10-fold higher affinity for dopamine. Parvalbumin (PV) and calretinin (CR) are 2 interneuron populations that are differentially(More)