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A new technique, using an oscillating viscometer capable of measuring changes of DNA reduced viscosity (eta red), has been used to detect DNA damage in liver of rats treated with various chemical carcinogens. In denaturing conditions (pH 12.5), the eta red of liver DNA from control rats increased slowly with time, reaching a maximum, (eta red)max, after 10(More)
4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE), a major product of the peroxidation of liver microsomal lipids, was examined for mutagenic activity at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase locus in V79 Chinese hamster lung cells. At concentrations ranging from 10 to 45 microM, HNE induced a dose-dependent increase in the number of mutations to 6-thioguanine(More)
A new procedure has been examined for measuring unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in hepatocyte primary cultures by liquid-scintillation counting. DNA of the hepatocyte lysates was eluted with K-phosphate buffers after absorption on hydroxylapatite in order to reduce the background produced by cytoplasmic radioactivity. To inhibit hepatocyte replicative(More)
The mutagenicity for mammalian cells of five n-alkanals produced by lipid peroxidation was tested in V79 Chinese hamster lung cells either at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase locus as resistance to 6-thioguanine or at the Na/K ATPase locus as resistance to ouabain. The results show that propanal, butanal, pentanal and hexanal induced a(More)
Fifty-seven theoretically nitrosatable widely used drugs that are commonly administered orally have been screened to determine the formation of nitroso compounds by drug-nitrite interaction and to evaluate the genotoxicity of their nitrosation products against Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, measured as DNA-damaging potency by the alkaline elution(More)
Ranitidine, a new H-2 receptor antagonist more potent than cimetidine in inhibiting gastric secretion, reacted under acid conditions with a twofold molar amount of nitrite (a nitrite/ranitidine ratio about 1000 times that likely to occur in gastric juice of treated humans) yielding a nitroso derivative capable of inducing a dose-dependent DNA fragmentation(More)
Chlordiazepoxide, a benzodiazepine derivative commonly used for the treatment of anxiety, was found to react with sodium nitrite in HCl aqueous solution yielding, at pH ranging from 0.5 to 5,N-nitrosochlordiazepoxide (NO-CDE). In the absence of a metabolic activation system, a dose-dependent frequency of DNA single-strand breaks was revealed by the alkaline(More)
In conditions similar to those occurring in the stomach, the sympathomimetic drug dimethophrine was found to react with nitrite yielding 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (DMBQ). The in vitro and in vivo studies carried out to evaluate the capability of DMBQ to produce cytotoxic and genotoxic effects provided the following results. A dose-related reduction of(More)