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Tandem duplications are among the most common mutation events. The high loss rate of duplication suggested that the frequency of duplications in a bacterial population (1/1000) might reflect a steady state dictated by relative rates of formation (k(F)) and loss (k(L)). This possibility was tested for three genetic loci. Without homologous recombination(More)
Growth under selection causes new genotypes to predominate in a population. It is difficult to determine whether selection stimulates formation of new mutations or merely allows faster growth of mutants that arise independent of selection. In the practice of microbial genetics, selection is used to detect and enumerate pre-existing mutants; stringent(More)
Prokaryotes are capable of sophisticated sensory behaviors. We have detected sequence motifs in bacterial signaling proteins that may act as transmitter or receiver modules in mediating protein-protein communication. These modules appear to retain their functional identities in many protein hosts, implying that they are structurally independent elements. We(More)
The eut operon of Salmonella typhimurium encodes proteins involved in the cobalamin-dependent degradation of ethanolamine. Previous genetic analysis revealed six eut genes that are needed for aerobic use of ethanolamine; one (eutR), encodes a positive regulator which mediates induction of the operon by vitamin B12 plus ethanolamine. The DNA sequence of the(More)
In a particular genetic system, selection stimulates reversion of a lac mutation and causes genome-wide mutagenesis (adaptive mutation). Selection allows rare plated cells with a duplication of the leaky lac allele to initiate clones within which further lac amplification improves growth rate. Growth and amplification add mutational targets to each clone(More)
Adenosylcobalamin (Ado-B12) is both the cofactor and inducer of ethanolamine ammonia lyase (EA-lyase), a catabolic enzyme for ethanolamine. De novo synthesis of Ado-B12 by Salmonella enterica occurs only under anaerobic conditions. Therefore, aerobic growth on ethanolamine requires import of Ado-B12 or a precursor (CN-B12 or OH-B12) that can be adenosylated(More)
In a phenomenon referred to as "adaptive mutation," a population of bacterial cells with a mutation in the lac operon (lac-) accumulates Lac+ revertants during prolonged exposure to selective growth conditions (lactose). Evidence was provided that selective conditions do not increase the mutation rate but instead favor the growth of rare cells with a(More)
Plasmid F'(128) was formed by an exchange between chromosomal Rep sequences that placed lac near dinB between many pairs of Rep sequences. Plasmid F'(128) is critical for selection-enhanced lac reversion (adaptive mutation), which requires prior lac amplification. The structure of F'(128) supports the idea that amplification is initiated by Rep-Rep(More)