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The Reaction Level Scale (RLS85) is a "coma scale" for the direct assessment of overall reaction level in patients with acute brain disorders. It is devised for reliable use even in the management of patients who are difficult to assess, such as intubated patients and patients with swollen eyelids. We here present the manual of the RLS85 and the guidelines(More)
The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and the Reaction Level Scale (RLS85) were compared for rating neurosurgical patients in regard to ranking order of deficit severity, interobserver variability, and coverage for relevant factors. Four physicians, four registered nurses, and four assistant nurses performed 72 pairwise ratings on 47 neurosurgical patients. The rank(More)
This study was undertaken to elucidate the physiological significance of material involved in the rapid axonal transport. The effects of colchicine-induced inhibition of axonal transport in the retinal ganglion cells on the electrophysiological properties of the retrobulbar visual pathways were investigated in Albino rabbits. An impaired signal transmission(More)
This study compares the safety and effectiveness of two methods for the prophylaxis of post-operative thromboembolism in neurosurgical patients: A: low-dose heparin (5,000 IU X 2 s.c.) started preoperatively and continued daily for one week post-operatively, and B: per-operative electrical calf muscle stimulation with groups of impulses plus post-operative(More)
A new scale for assessment of overall responsiveness, the Reaction Level Scale (RLS 85), which has been shown to have better reliability than the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), has been tested in four neurosurgical departments regarding inter-observer agreement and coverage i.e. the proportion of patients that could be assessed by the scale. In a carefully(More)
The human auditory sensitivity in detecting linear frequency ramps of a continuous pure tone has been studied. It is shown that for short ramp durations (less than 200 msec) discrimination depends on the difference between base and plateau frequencies, the mean threshold being about 3 Hz at 1 kHz. For longer ramp durations (greater than 200 msec),(More)
Slow evoked cortical potentials in response to linear frequency ramps of a continuous pure tone with a 1 kHz base frequency have been recorded from ten relatively young subjects with hearing loss of cochlear origin. At small frequency ramps, the N1-latency of their responses to the three ramp durations studied (20, 100, 500 msec) was significantly longer(More)
The purine-rich Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence located a few bases upstream of the mRNA initiation codon supports translation initiation by complementary binding to the anti-SD in the 16S rRNA, close to its 3' end. AUG is the canonical initiation codon but the weaker UUG and GUG codons are also used for a minority of genes. The codon sequence of the(More)
The auditory sensitivity for detecting linear frequency sweeps of a continuous pure tone has been studied in ten young subjects with cochlear hearing loss. The mean thresholds were elevated by a factor of 2.8 as compared with a normal group over the whole range of ramp durations studied (10-500 msec). The results show that this elevation is most likely(More)
The effect on the experimental tooth pain threshold of conditioning electrical stimulation via needles or surface electrodes applied to the hands and cheeks was studied in 34 dental students. Conditioning stimulation with 2/sec. gave a slowly increasing pain threshold followed by a slow return to the control level in the post-conditioning period. In each(More)