E. Bryan George

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This paper describes our enhanced Mixed Excitation Linear Prediction (MELP) coder which is a candidate for the new U. S. Federal Standard at 2.4 kbits/s. The new coder is based on the MELP model, and it uses a number of enhancements as well as efficient quantization algorithms to improve performance while maintaining a low bit rate. In addition, the coder(More)
A new formula calculates rates of directed axonal growth (elongation or retraction) using measurements of growth cone movements. By explicitly separating changes in axonal length from other nonelongational growth cone movements, the calculated rates reflect the detailed cellular growth mechanisms more directly than previous growth measures. In addition, the(More)
This series of papers addresses the mechanism by which certain impermeant oxonol dyes respond to membranepotential changes, denoted ΔE m . Hemispherical oxidized cholesterol bilayer membranes provided a controlled model membrane system for determining the dependence of the light absorption signal from the dye on parameters such as the wavelength and(More)
Axons in tissue culture retract and shorten if their tips are detached from the substrate. The shortening reaction of the axon involves contractile forces that also arise during normal axonal motility, elongation, and retraction. We studied shortening in axonal segments isolated from their parent axons by transecting the axon between the growth cone and the(More)
We have measured potential-dependent changes in the absorption of light by oxidized cholesterol bilayer lipid membranes in the presence of impermeant oxonol dyes. The magnitude of the absorption signal increased linearly with the size of potential steps over a range of 500 mV. The signal also increased when the offset voltage of the pulse train was(More)