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Various phthalacyanine (Pc) derivatives of phototherapeutic interest have been shown to be efficient type II (singlet oxygen, 1O2) sensitizers in aqueous and non-aqueous solutions. However, primary Pc photochemistry in biological environments, e.g. cell membranes, has not been studied in a definitive manner. To address this question, we used endogenous(More)
The photodynamic inactivation of retroviruses was investigated using aluminium and zinc phthalocyanine (Pc) derivatives. The N2 retrovirus packaged in either of the two murine cell lines, Psi2 and PA317, was used as a model for enveloped viruses. AlPc derivatives were found to be more effective photodynamically for inactivation of the viruses than the(More)
Polyamines, especially spermine, are very effective in enhancing thermal killing of mammalian cells cultured as a monolayer. The response of EMT6 multicellular tumour spheroids to heat in the presence of spermine was studied using cell survival and growth delay as endpoints. Compared to cells in a monolayer, spheroids were found to be highly resistant to(More)
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