E B Smithwick

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BACKGROUND To assess the effectiveness of the cholera prevention activities of the Peruvian Ministry of Health, we conducted a knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) survey in urban and rural Amazon communities during the cholera epidemic in 1991. METHODS We surveyed heads of 67 urban and 61 rural households to determine diarrhoea rates, sources of(More)
Primate sperm acquire functional maturity, including vigorous forward motility and the ability to fertilize an ovum, as they transit the unique, regional microenvironment of the epididymal lumen. Several proteins secreted into this luminal fluid are epididymal-specific and androgen-dependent, and thus contribute potentially to sperm maturation. For the(More)
To determine the duration of 1 spermatogenic cycle, a single pulse of tritiated thymidine was infused into a branch of the spermatic artery in each of 3 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Samples were recovered surgically prior to infusion, at 1 h, and at 3, 8, 14, 16, 17, 28, 30, 33, 40, 44, and 48 days postinfusion. Tissues were fixed in Bouin's solution,(More)
Seminiferous tubule architecture, germ cell maturation steps and cellular associations (stages) of the spermatogenic cycle of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) are resolved. Cross sections of seminiferous tubules usually exhibit 2 to 4 stages, occasionally 1, and rarely 5; stages are not functionally sequential in structurally contiguous regions. The(More)
Proteins, synthesized by the epididymal epithelium, are secreted sequentially into the lumen of the ducts epididymis where they effect sperm maturation and enable functional motility and fertilizing capacity. EP1 is a major secretory glycoprotein of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) epididymis. The epididymal duct exhibits diverse histology (Smithwick & Young,(More)
Adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity of flagella isolated from ejaculated bull sperm was solubilized by 5 min exposure to 0.6 M KCl at 4 degrees C. ATPase activity in the flagellar extract was characterized with respect to enzyme, substrate, activator ion, salt, and hydrogen ion concentration. Flagellar extract required the presence of a divalent(More)
Extended bull ejaculates were stored in vitro at 4 +/- 1 degree C in the dark. The pH of the ejaculates did not change significantly during storage. The percentage of sperm with intact plasmalemmae was 70% on day 2 and negligible by day 36. On day 2, acrosomes were absent in 3% of the sperm and partial in about 20%; acrosomal damage increased with storage,(More)
Human sera were identified as positive or negative for sperm-reactive antibodies in a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Of these, 28 positive and 22 negative sera were blind-coded and used as first antibody to compare three immunoassays, a modified liquid-phase indirect immunobead assay (IBA); a liquid-phase indirect immunofluorescence(More)
The chimpanzee epididymis consists of three gross anatomical regions: caput (Cp), corpus (Cr), and cauda (Cd). During epididymal transit, chimpanzee sperm undergo maturational changes (affecting motility, capacitation, and the acrosome reaction), which enable fertilization. Elucidation of the sequential histology of the chimpanzee epididymis is preliminary(More)