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The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the conditions and restrictions under which seamless multimedia Quality of Service (QoS) provision across 4G is possible. One vital component for the provision of seamless multimedia session continuity is the QoS consistency across these heterogeneous networks. This is vital indeed because without QoS(More)
Future wireless networks will consist of multiple heterogeneous access technologies such as UMTS, WLAN and Wi-Max. The main challenge in these networks is to provide users with a wide range of services across different radio access technologies through a single mobile terminal. With regard to vertical hand off performance, there is a need for developing(More)
In this article we provide an introduction to the use of likelihood ratios in clinical ophthalmology. Likelihood ratios permit the best use of clinical test results to establish diagnoses for the individual patient. Examples and step-by-step calculations demonstrate the estimation of pretest probability, pretest odds, and calculation of posttest odds and(More)
The growing consumer's demand leads a great access to communication services anywhere and at anytime. It has started to accelerate the development of technologies that would allow for the integration of various Wireless Access Technologies. With regard to vertical handoff performance, there is a critical need for developing algorithms for connection(More)
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