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Prolonged exposure to drugs of abuse, such as cannabinoids and opioids, leads to pharmacological tolerance and receptor desensitization in the nervous system. We found that a similar form of functional antagonism was produced by sustained inactivation of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the principal degradative enzyme for the endocannabinoid(More)
High and low lines resulting from 30 generations of bidirectional selection for open-field activity have nonoverlapping distributions and more than a thirtyfold difference in mean activity. Open-field defecation scores of low-active lines are approximately 7 times higher than those of high-active lines, substantiating earlier reports of a large, negative(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare efficacy of transobturator tape with tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women with intrinsic sphincter deficiency. METHODS One hundred sixty-four women diagnosed with urodynamic stress incontinence and intrinsic sphincter deficiency with or without concomitant pelvic organ prolapse(More)
The effects of oleamide, an amidated lipid isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of sleep-deprived cats, on serotonin receptor-mediated responses were investigated in cultured mammalian cells. In rat P11 cells, which endogenously express the 5-hydroxytryptamine2A (5HT2A) receptor, oleamide significantly potentiated 5HT-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis.(More)
Chronic administration of the atypical antipsychotic drug, clozapine, to rodents has been shown to increase the concentration of apolipoprotein D (apoD) in several area of the brain, suggesting that apoD could be involved in the therapeutic effects of antipsychotic drugs and/or the pathology of psychotic illnesses. Here, we measured a significant decrease(More)
PURPOSE We reported and compared the outcomes of repeat mid urethral sling with primary mid urethral sling in women with stress urinary incontinence. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 1,225 consecutive women with urodynamic stress incontinence underwent a synthetic mid urethral sling procedure (955 retropubic, 270 transobturator) at our institution between(More)
The mRNA for the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 5-HT5A was detected at embryonic day 18 in the rat central nervous system and peaked by postnatal day 20. At all time points examined, 5-HT5A immunoreactivity observed on astrocyte cell bodies and in the stellate processes not only colocalized with the astrocyte-specific marker glial fibrillary acidic protein(More)
The propensity of isolates of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum to delete a segment of chromosome 9 has provided positional information that has allowed us to identify a gene necessary for cytoadherence. It has been termed the cytoadherence-linked asexual gene (clag9). clag9 encodes at least nine exons and is expressed in blood stages. The(More)
In contrast to typical neuroleptic drugs, which have high affinities for dopamine D2 receptors, clozapine binds to multiple neurotransmitter receptors. The mechanisms responsible for its superior clinical efficacy over typical neuroleptics remain unknown. Using an automated genomics approach, total gene expression analysis (TOGA), we found an approximately(More)
Scopolamine-induced deficits in cognitive and motor processes have been widely demonstrated in animals and humans, although the role of acetylcholine in working memory is not as well understood. This study examined the role of acetylcholine neurotransmission in visuospatial short term and working memory using the Groton Maze Learning Test (GMLT). The GMLT(More)