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The small, maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has turned out to be a Pandora's box of pathogenic mutations: 13 years into the era of "molecular mitochondrial medicine," more than 100 pathogenic point mutations and innumerable rearrangements have been associated with a striking variety of multisystemic as well as tissue-specific human diseases.(More)
Mutations in PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) are a cause of autosomal recessive familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Efforts in deducing the PINK1 signaling pathway have been hindered by controversy around its subcellular and submitochondrial localization and the authenticity of its reported substrates. We show here that this mitochondrial protein(More)
Adult-onset neurodegenerative disorders are disabling and often fatal diseases of the nervous system whose underlying mechanisms of cell death remain unknown. Defects in mitochondrial respiration had previously been proposed to contribute to the occurrence of many, if not all, of the most common neurodegenerative disorders. However, the discovery of genes(More)
Mitochondrial diseases (encephalomyopathies) have traditionally been ascribed to defects of the respiratory chain, which has helped researchers explain their genetic and clinical complexity. However, other mitochondrial functions are greatly important for the nervous system, including protein importation, organellar dynamics, and programmed cell death.(More)
Mutations in the human mitochondrial genome are known to cause an array of diverse disorders, most of which are maternally inherited, and all of which are associated with defects in oxidative energy metabolism. It is now emerging that somatic mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are also linked to other complex traits, including neurodegenerative(More)
Alzheimer disease (AD) is associated with aberrant processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by γ-secretase, via an unknown mechanism. We recently showed that presenilin-1 and -2, the catalytic components of γ-secretase, and γ-secretase activity itself, are highly enriched in a subcompartment of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that is physically and(More)
In recent years, genetic defects of the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) were shown to be associated with a heterogeneous group of disorders, known as mitochondrial diseases, but the cellular events deriving from the molecular lesions and the mechanistic basis of the specificity of the syndromes are still incompletely understood. Mitochondrial calcium (Ca2+)(More)
Mammalian cytochrome c oxidase (COX) catalyses the transfer of reducing equivalents from cytochrome c to molecular oxygen and pumps protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes three COX subunits (I-III) and nuclear DNA (nDNA) encodes ten. In addition, ancillary proteins are required for the correct assembly and(More)
Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) and progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO) are related neuromuscular disorders characterized by ocular myopathy and ophthalmoplegia. Almost all patients with KSS and about half with PEO harbor large deletions in their mitochondrial genomes. The deletions differ in both size and location, except for one, 5 kilobases long, that(More)