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The influence of a backmixing operation on the convective belt drying of two wastewater sludges was studied. The expansion of the sludge extrudates bed due to increasing additions of dry product was quantified by using X-ray tomography. This non-invasive technique was used to determine the bed porosity and the total exchange area available for heat and mass(More)
Much of our knowledge of protein binding pathways is derived from extremely stable complexes that interact very tightly, with lifetimes of hours to days. Much less is known about weaker interactions and transient complexes because these are challenging to characterize experimentally. Nevertheless, these types of interactions are ubiquitous in living(More)
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy can provide detailed information on protein-ligand interactions that is inaccessible using other biophysical techniques. This chapter focuses on NMR-based approaches for extracting affinity and rate constants for weakly binding transient protein complexes with lifetimes of less than about a second. Several pulse(More)
Recently cubic (c-) GaN/In x Ga 1-x N/GaN double heterostructures and quantum wells have been grown by MBE and MOCVD [1-3]. Contrary to their hexagonal counterparts, the cubic structures can be grown free from modulation due to spontaneous polarization and strain-induced piezoelectric fields. The spatial separation of the carriers wave function, induced by(More)
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