Dylan R. Pillai

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Epidemiological studies of the naturally transformable bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae have previously been confounded by high rates of recombination. Sequencing 240 isolates of the PMEN1 (Spain(23F)-1) multidrug-resistant lineage enabled base substitutions to be distinguished from polymorphisms arising through horizontal sequence transfer. More(More)
BACKGROUND Recent gains in reducing the global burden of malaria are threatened by the emergence of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinins. The discovery that mutations in portions of a P. falciparum gene encoding kelch (K13)-propeller domains are the major determinant of resistance has provided opportunities for monitoring such resistance on a(More)
Reports from several sites in South America suggest the presence of isolated cases of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria. To investigate the possibility of chloroquine-resistant P. vivax in Peru, we conducted 28-day in vivo drug efficacy trials at three sites in the Amazon region and one site on the northern Pacific Coast between 1998 and 2001.(More)
Fecal microbiome transplantation by low-volume enema is an effective, safe, and inexpensive alternative to antibiotic therapy for patients with chronic relapsing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). We explored the microbial diversity of pre- and posttransplant stool specimens from CDI patients (n = 6) using deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. While(More)
Emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) serotype 19A Streptococcus pneumoniae (SPN) is well-documented but causal factors remain unclear. Canadian SPN isolates (1993-2008, n = 11,083) were serotyped and in vitro susceptibility tested. A subset of MDR 19A were multi-locus sequence typed (MLST) and representative isolates' whole genomes sequenced. MDR 19A(More)
Imported malaria is an increasing problem worldwide. A rapid and accurate test for Plasmodium falciparum infection would facilitate the diagnosis of malaria in the returned traveler. The ParaSight F antigen capture assay (dipstick test) is a new diagnostic test for P. falciparum based on detection of circulating histidine-rich protein-2 antigen. We(More)
Although metagenomics has been previously employed for pathogen discovery, its cost and complexity have prevented its use as a practical front-line diagnostic for unknown infectious diseases. Here we demonstrate the utility of two metagenomics-based strategies, a pan-viral microarray (Virochip) and deep sequencing, for the identification and(More)
Monitoring resistance phenotypes for Plasmodium falciparum, using in vitro growth assays, and relating findings to parasite genotype has proved particularly challenging for the study of resistance to artemisinins. Plasmodium falciparum isolates cultured from 28 returning travellers diagnosed with malaria were assessed for sensitivity to artemisinin,(More)
Bangladesh is a malaria hypo-endemic country sharing borders with India and Myanmar. Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) remains successful in Bangladesh. An increase of artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites on the Thai-Cambodia and Thai-Myanmar borders is worrisome. K13 propeller gene (PF3D7_1343700 or PF13_0238) mutations have been linked to both in(More)
Diarrhea due to enteric bacterial pathogens causes significant morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. However, bacterial pathogens may be infrequently identified. Currently, culture and enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) are the primary methods used by clinical laboratories to detect enteric bacterial pathogens. We conducted a multicenter(More)