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We determined that Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac and Cry1Fa delta-endotoxins recognize the same 110, 120 and 170 kDa aminopeptidase N (APN) molecules in brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from Heliothis virescens. The 110 kDa protein, not previously identified as an APN, contained a variant APN consensus sequence identical to that found in Helicoverpa(More)
The binding and pore formation properties of four Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1 toxins were analyzed by using brush border membrane vesicles from Spodoptera exigua and Spodoptera frugiperda, and the results were compared to the results of toxicity bioassays. Cry1Fa was highly toxic and Cry1Ac was nontoxic to S. exigua and S. frugiperda larvae, while Cry1Ca(More)
We previously identified a novel Heliothis virescens 110 kDa aminopeptidase N (APN) that binds Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac and Cry1Fa delta-endotoxins, and cloned an internal region of the 110 kDa APN gene (Banks et al., 2001). Here we describe the RACE-PCR cloning and sequence of a cDNA encoding 110 kDa APN. The 110 kDa APN gene was transiently(More)
We present here a robust microfluidic cell perifusion device for in vitro primary tissue cell secretion studies. This system increases the sample concentration to perifusion volume ratio by an order of magnitude compared with standard multi-well plate static incubation assays. Further, this device achieves physiologically relevant flow rates, pressures, and(More)
We present an adaptive, current-mode analogue neuron circuit [1], which adapts its spiking output frequency and pulse width relative to the magnitude and vector of the computation of its input nodes. By modulating the pulse width to represent the output vector signed double byte data transfer protocol along a single channel is enabled: doubling output data(More)
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