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The authors reevaluate a large prospective Italian study (437 patients) that compared high-dose imipramine with ECT treatment in the treatment of depression. The superiority of ECT was evident among patients with endogenous depression, and especially evident among those with delusional depression (83% improved with ECT versus 40% with imipramine) and(More)
The treatments of 519 depressed patients hospitalized from 1959 to 1969 were compared in a three-year follow-up study with particular reference to mortality. The electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) group had a significantly lower mortality than the inadequate antidepressant treatment group (P less than .05) and the group that received neither ECT nor(More)
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), antidepressants, and neither treatment were compared by reviewing 609 hospitalizations for depression from 1959 to 1969. The groups receiving ECT had a significantly (p less than 0.001) greater percentage of patient who had marked improvement or a complete response (49%) than either adequate or inadequate antidepressant(More)
Suicide, attempted suicide, and relapse rates in 519 depressives were examined, comparing the effects of different treatments. After six months, suicide attempts were seen significantly less frequently in the ECT groups (0.8%) than in the antidepressant group (4.2%) or the "adequate" antidepressant subgroup (7.0%) Fewer suicide attempts occurred in the ECT(More)
Casual observations indicated that some cattle are more sensitive to sudden movement or intermittent sound than other cattle. Six commercial livestock auctions in two states and a total of 1,636 cattle were observed to assess the relationship between breed, sex, and temperament score on the response to sudden, intermittent visual and sound stimuli, such as(More)
The effect of cocaine on spatial learning was investigated by exposing male Sprague-Dawley rats to 0, 20, or 40 mg/kg cocaine prior to and during training on a water maze task. Half the animals were pretrained on cued trials prior to hidden platform trials, while the remaining animals completed hidden platform trials immediately. Escape latencies for all(More)
The neuropeptide bombesin (BBS) is examined with regard to possible designation as an integrative peptide. The term integrative peptide has been proposed to distinguish a subset of regulatory peptides. These peptides, distributed in the body and the brain, may function as hormones and neurotransmitters to integrate physiological and psychological functions.(More)
The effects of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist dextromethorphan on spatial learning were assessed using the Morris water maze. Dextromethorphan was administered to 4 groups of rats in 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg/kg doses. An additional group of rats was administered saline to serve as a vehicle control group. Dextromethorphan impaired learning dose(More)
1. Rats were unilaterally implanted with chronic indwelling cannulae directed towards the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus. Carbamylcholine chloride (carbachol), noradrenaline, and saline were microinjected in volumes of 0.5 mul. at each of three environmental temperatures, 5, 24, and 35 degrees C.2. At an ambient temperature of 24 degrees C(More)