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UNLABELLED There is no information comparing the ability to reverse the cardiotoxic effects associated with incremental overdosage of bupivacaine (BUP) to levobupivacaine (LBUP), ropivacaine (ROP), or lidocaine (LIDO). Open-chest dogs were randomized to receive incremental escalating infusions of BUP, LBUP, ROP, and LIDO to the point of cardiovascular(More)
UNLABELLED It is unclear whether the mechanism of death from local anesthetic (LA) intoxication is primarily a consequence of cardiac arrhythmias or myocardial contractile depression, and whether LAs might differ in this susceptibility to these two mechanisms. By using programmable electrical stimulation (PES) protocols in anesthetized, ventilated dogs, we(More)
After severe hemorrhage, hypertonic saline restores systemic hemodynamics and decreases intracranial pressure (ICP), but its effects on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) when used for resuscitation of experimental animals with combined shock and intracranial hypertension have not been reported. We compared rCBF changes (by radiolabeled microsphere(More)
An association has been demonstrated between intravascular microemboli and organ injury during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Air may be inadvertently introduced into the venous line during CPB resulting in the formation of gaseous microemboli (GME). We studied the ability of CPB circuits, from five different manufacturers, to remove GME originating from the(More)
BACKGROUND Brain injury remains a significant problem in patients undergoing cardiac surgery assisted by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Autopsy brain specimens of patients after cardiac operations with CPB reveal numerous acellular lipid deposits (10 to 70 microm) in the microvasculature. We hypothesize that these small capillary and arterial dilatations(More)
BACKGROUND Microembolization during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can be detected in the brain as lipid deposits that create small capillary and arteriolar dilations (SCADs) with ischemic injury and neuronal dysfunction. SCAD density is increased with the use of cardiotomy suction to scavenge shed blood. Our purpose was to determine whether various methods(More)
BACKGROUND Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is an endogenous cellular protective mechanism whereby brief, noninjurious periods of ischemia render a tissue more resistant to a subsequent, more prolonged ischemic insult. We hypothesized that IPC of the spinal cord would reduce neurologic injury after experimental aortic occlusion in rats and that this improved(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate the effects of hypertonic saline for resuscitation after mild hemorrhagic hypotension combined with fluid-percussion traumatic brain injury. Specifically, the effects of hypertonic saline on intracranial pressure, cerebral blood flow (radioactive microsphere method), cerebral oxygen delivery (cerebral oxygen delivery = cerebral(More)
OBJECTIVE We hypothesized that a strategy that reduced aortic manipulation would reduce the incidence of cognitive deficits in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting compared with the "traditional" approach and that neurobehavioral outcomes with the reduced aortic manipulation strategy would approach those obtained with off-pump coronary artery(More)
BACKGROUND Vacuum-assisted venous drainage enables adequate drainage through small-diameter cannulas but concerns are that it results in more gaseous microemboli delivered to the patient. METHODS Five identical embolus detectors monitored the propagation of entrained air through a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) model. The ability of the CPB circuit to(More)