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A comprehensive assessment of organizational functioning and readiness for change (ORC) was developed based on a conceptual model and previous findings on transferring research to practice. It focuses on motivation and personality attributes of program leaders and staff, institutional resources, and organizational climate as an important first step in(More)
Systematic evaluations of efforts to transfer research-based interventions and procedures into general practice at community drug treatment programs have been limited. However, practical experiences as well as results from studies of technology transfer and organizational behavior in related fields provide a basis for proposing a heuristic model of key(More)
Treatment programs are expected to change their clients. To adopt evidence-based practices to improve their therapeutic effectiveness in dealing with drug-related problems of clients, they also are expected to change themselves. The process of innovation adoption and implementation is the focus of studies included in this special journal issue.(More)
Mortality rates and survival curves were estimated for a sample of opioid addicts who had survived to an initial six-year follow-up interview. A total of 52 of the 555 addicts died between the six-year and 12-year follow-up interviews, which corresponds to an average of 13.8 deaths/1,000 person years. This rate is 6.9 times greater than the general(More)
Evidence from specialized treatment evaluations and large-scale natural studies of treatment effectiveness is organized conceptually into a "treatment model" for summarizing how drug treatment works. Sequential relationships between patient and treatment program attributes, early patient engagement, recovery stages, retention, and favorable outcomes are(More)
Although one-third of clients enrolled in methadone treatment in the United States are female, few studies have looked at gender differences at admission and follow-up. Using interview data from 435 clients (31% female) collected at admission and approximately 1 year after discharge, females were found to have more dysfunctional families of origin and(More)
A sample of 1,496 persons admitted to 26 community treatment agencies participating in the Drug Abuse Reporting Program (DARP) during 1972 and 1973 were located and interviewed in 1978 and 1979. Favorableness of one-year posttreatment outcomes with respect to illicit drug use, criminality, and employment and other productive activities was found to increase(More)
A model to explain treatment retention in terms of process components--therapeutic involvement and session attributes for the 1st month--and patient background factors were tested in long-term residential (LTR), outpatient drug free (ODF), and outpatient methadone (OMT) treatments. The data was collected in the national Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies(More)
HIV risks involving injection and sex behaviors were analyzed in relation to cocaine use and gender among 487 opiate-dependent clients in methadone treatment. Those who also used cocaine were at greater risk than non-cocaine users on HIV risky injection variables. Females were at more risk than males on the HIV risky sex behaviors involving unprotected sex(More)
Mortality rates were examined among 3,324 Black and White daily opioid drug users for a four-year period following treatment in community-based agencies located across the United States. A total of 179 of these addicts died during this follow-up period, yielding a death rate of 15.2 per 1,000 person-years at risk. When adjusted for age, addict death rates(More)