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The hippocampus is an area of the brain that undergoes dramatic plasticity in response to experience and hormone exposure. The hippocampus retains the ability to produce new neurones in most mammalian species and is a structure that is targeted in a number of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases, many of which are influenced by both sex and sex(More)
Gonadal steroids are potent regulators of adult neurogenesis. We previously reported that androgens, such as testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), but not estradiol, increased the survival of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of the male rat. These results suggest androgens regulate hippocampal neurogenesis via the androgen receptor (AR). To test(More)
Both natural oestrogens and progesterone influence synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis within the female hippocampus. However, less is known of the impact of synthetic hormones on hippocampal structure and function. There is some evidence that the administration of the synthetic progestin, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) is not as beneficial as natural(More)
Onuf's nucleus, a collection of motoneurons within the spinal cord, is often spared in the neurodegenerative disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To assess whether these cells survive in a rodent model of this disease, motoneurons were counted in the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (an homologous structure to Onuf's), as well as in two other cell(More)
Deletion of the gene Foxp2 affects ultrasonic vocalizations and induces morphological abnormalities in the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum in mice. Castration decreases the production of ultrasonic vocalizations in rats, but the mechanisms of androgenic regulation of ultrasounds are unknown. We explored a possible relationship between Foxp2 expression(More)
Newly developed genetic models indicate that estrogen receptors (ERs) alone mediate prenatal masculinization of the mouse brain to organize reproductive and territorial behaviors, while postnatal activation of androgen receptors (ARs) potentiates specific components of those behaviors. These results and others offer a model of how AR and ER pathways(More)
Gonadal steroids such as testosterone and estrogen are necessary for the normal activation of male rat sexual behavior. The medial preoptic area (MPOA), an important neural substrate regulating mating, accumulates steroids and also expresses functional androgen receptors (AR). The MPOA is intimately connected with other regions implicated in copulation,(More)
Male rats carrying the testicular feminization mutation (Tfm-affected males) are insensitive to androgens, resulting in a female-typical peripheral phenotype despite possession of inguinal testes that are androgen secretory. Androgen-dependent neural and behavioral processes may likewise show atypical sexual differentiation. Interestingly, these mutant rats(More)
In Syrian hamsters, some procedures for stimulating behavioural arousal (e.g. running in a novel wheel and sleep deprivation by gentle handling with minimal activity) markedly phase-advance circadian rhythms when applied during the middle of the daily rest period, while other arousal procedures do not (e.g. physical restraint, caffeine and modafinil). The(More)
The sexual motivation of male rats may be inferred from a preference to stay in proximity to estrous female partners, and also from a short latency to show mounting behavior. Here, partner preference was assessed in rats carrying the testicular feminization mutation (TFM), and compared to wild type (WT) males in one version of this paradigm, and WT females(More)