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We determined the positions and arrangements of RNA ligands within the ribosome with a new neutron-scattering technique, the proton-spin contrast-variation. Two tRNAs were bound to the ribosome in the pre-translocational and the post-translocational state. The mass centre of gravity of both tRNAs resides at the subunit interface of the body of the 30S(More)
The movement of a ribosome along the mRNA was assessed by the following experimental strategy. mRNAs were synthesized which contained a short coding sequence with at least four codons and a 32P label at one end and an oligo(C) sequence at the other end. When these mRNAs were fixed on the ribosome with tRNAs specific for the defined codons, the oligo(C)(More)
This paper presents Platener, a system that allows quickly fabricating intermediate design iterations of 3D models, a process also known as low-fidelity fabrication. Platener achieves its speed-up by extracting straight and curved plates from the 3D model and substituting them with laser cut parts of the same size and thickness. Only the regions that are of(More)
Low-fidelity fabrication systems speed up rapid prototyping by printing intermediate versions of a prototype as fast, low-fidelity previews. Only the final version is fabricated as a full high-fidelity 3D print. This allows designers to iterate more quickly-achieving a better design in less time. Depending on what is currently being tested, low-fidelity(More)
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