Durbaka Vijaya Raghava Prasad

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T cell activation by antigen-presenting cells (APC) is regulated by positive and negative costimulatory molecules in the B7 family. Here we describe a novel addition in this family, designated as B7S1, which is uniquely anchored to the cell membrane via a GPI linkage. B7S1 is expressed on professional APC and widely distributed in nonlymphoid tissues. A(More)
Semaphorins and their receptors have diverse functions in axon guidance, organogenesis, vascularization and/or angiogenesis, oncogenesis and regulation of immune responses. The primary receptors for semaphorins are members of the plexin family. In particular, plexin-A1, together with ligand-binding neuropilins, transduces repulsive axon guidance signals for(More)
T cell activation is regulated by the innate immune system through positive and negative costimulatory molecules. B7-H3 is a novel B7-like molecule with a putative receptor on activated T cells. Human B7-H3 was first described as a positive costimulator, most potently inducing IFN-gamma production and cellular immunity. In this study we examined the(More)
B cells recognize Ag through their surface IgRs and present it in the context of MHC class II molecules to CD4(+) T cells. Recent evidence indicates that B cells also present exogenous Ags in the context of MHC class I to CD8(+) T cells and thus may play an important role in the modulation of CTL responses. However, in this regard, conflicting reports are(More)
The class IV semaphorin Sema4A provides a costimulatory signal to T cells. To investigate the possible developmental and regulatory roles of Sema4A in vivo, we generated Sema4A-deficient mice. Although Sema4A-deficient mice develop normally, DCs and T cells from knockout mice display poor allostimulatory activities and T helper cell (Th) differentiation,(More)
After the engagement of Ag receptor, most of the Th cells for their optimal activation require a second (costimulatory) signal provided by the APCs. We demonstrate the isolation and characterization of a 99- to 105-kDa protein (B2), from LPS-activated B cell surface, and its function as a Th2-specific costimulatory molecule. Appearance of B2 as a single(More)
T cell activation and immune function are regulated by costimulatory molecules of the B7 superfamily. Human B7-H3 is a recent addition to this family and has been shown to mediate T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production. In this work we describe the identification of the mouse B7-H3 homolog, which is ubiquitously expressed in a variety of tissues.(More)
Co-receptors on the B-cell surface regulate B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling; however, it remains unclear how BCR signals are coordinated to maintain immune homeostasis. CD72, a negative regulator of B-cell responses, has immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs within its cytoplasmic region, and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 binds these(More)
Microbial challenges to the host initiate an array of defense processes through the activation of innate and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity consists of sensors or pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) that are expressed on immune and non-immune cells and sense conserved pathogen-derived molecules or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in(More)
The aim of this paper is to review the developments of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) biology, its ligands, and various functions, in particular we discuss the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic role in chronic inflammatory diseases. FXR is a ligand-dependent transcription factor belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. The accrued data have(More)