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Primordial germ cell (PGC) migration in zebrafish is directed by the chemokine SDF-1a that activates its receptor CXCR4b. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling the distribution of this chemoattractant in vivo. We demonstrate that the activity of a second SDF-1/CXCL12 receptor, CXCR7, is crucial for proper migration of PGCs toward their(More)
PURPOSE To use proton MR spectroscopy in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 to determine: (a) the spectroscopic characteristics of hamartomas and compare them with that of gliomas; (b) whether differences exist between patients with and without learning disabilities; and (c) spectroscopic patterns in normal-appearing brain (by MR imaging) in patients(More)
The ability to switch between yeast and hyphal growth forms (dimorphism) is one of the most discussed and best investigated virulence attributes of the human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Both morphological forms seem to be important for virulence and have distinct functions during the different stages of disease development, including adhesion,(More)
Dandruff is a common problem in approximately 30% of the world's population. Reports in the literature regarding treatment of this condition with various antidandruff shampoos usually report the level of active ingredient within the formulation. However, we propose that a more important parameter relating to antidandruff efficacy is the amount of active(More)
Candida albicans frequently causes superficial infections by invading and damaging epithelial cells, but may also cause systemic infections by penetrating through epithelial barriers. C. albicans is an unusual pathogen because it can invade epithelial cells via two distinct mechanisms: induced endocytosis, analogous to facultative intracellular(More)
The polymorphic fungus Candida albicans is a member of the normal human microbiome. In most individuals, C. albicans resides as a lifelong, harmless commensal. Under certain circumstances, however, C. albicans can cause infections that range from superficial infections of the skin to life-threatening systemic infections. Several factors and activities have(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume and clinical outcome of non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOAC)-associated ICH to warfarin-associated ICH. METHODS In this multicenter cross-sectional observational study of patients with anticoagulant-associated ICH, consecutive patients with NOAC-ICH were compared to those with warfarin-ICH(More)
BACKGROUND . Streptomyces venezuelae produces two groups of antibiotics that include the 12-membered ring macrolides methymycin and neomethymycin, and the 14-membered ring macrolide pikromycin. Methymycin and pikromycin are derived from the corresponding precursors, YC-17 and narbomycin, respectively, by hydroxylation of the tertiary carbon position (C-10(More)
The human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans can cause an unusually broad range of infections reflecting a remarkable potential to adapt to various microniches within the human host. The exceptional adaptability of C. albicans is mediated by rapid alterations in gene expression in response to various environmental stimuli and this transcriptional flexibility(More)
Although Candida glabrata is an important human pathogenic yeast, its pathogenicity mechanisms are largely unknown. Immune evasion strategies seem to play key roles during infection, since very little inflammation is observed in mouse models. Furthermore, C. glabrata multiplies intracellularly after engulfment by macrophages. In this study, we sought to(More)