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The 40 and 42 residue amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides are major components of the proteinaceous plaques prevalent in the Alzheimer's disease-afflicted brain and have been shown to have an important role in instigating neuronal degeneration. Whereas it was previously thought that Abeta becomes cytotoxic upon forming large fibrillar aggregates, recent studies(More)
The extracellular senile plaques prevalent in brain tissue in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are composed of amyloid fibrils formed by the Abeta peptide. These fibrils have been traditionally believed to be featured in neurotoxicity; however, numerous recent studies provide evidence that cytotoxicity in AD may be associated with low-molecular weight oligomers of(More)
This chapter reviews recent developments in the application of single-molecule spectroscopy (SMS) to studies of enzyme kinetics and mechanism. Protocols for conducting single-molecule experiments on enzymes, based largely on the experience in our laboratory, are provided, including methods of sample preparation, instrumentation, and data analysis. We also(More)
We report coherent optical control of a biexciton (two electron-hole pairs), confined in a single quantum dot, that shows coherent oscillations similar to the excited-state Rabi flopping in an isolated atom. The pulse control of the biexciton dynamics, combined with previously demonstrated control of the single-exciton Rabi rotation, serves as the physical(More)
Coherent population trapping (CPT) refers to the steady-state trapping of population in a coherent superposition of two ground states that are coupled by coherent optical fields to an intermediate state in a three-level atomic system 1. Recently, CPT has been observed in an ensemble of donor-bound spins in GaAs (ref. 2) and in single nitrogen-vacancy(More)
Quantum dots are typically formed from large groupings of atoms and thus may be expected to have appreciable many-body behavior under intense optical excitation. Nonetheless, they are known to exhibit discrete energy levels due to quantum confinement effects. We show that, like single-atom or single-molecule two- and three-level quantum systems, single(More)
Quantum computation requires a continuous supply of rapidly initialized qubits for quantum error correction. Here, we demonstrate fast spin state initialization with near unity efficiency in a singly charged quantum dot by optically cooling an electron spin. The electron spin is successfully cooled from 5 to 0.06 K at a magnetic field of 0.88 T applied in(More)
Transient nonlinear optical spectroscopy, performed on excitons confined to single GaAs quantum dots, shows oscillations that are analogous to Rabi oscillations in two-level atomic systems. This demonstration corresponds to a one-qubit rotation in a single quantum dot which is important for proposals using quantum dot excitons for quantum computing. The(More)
A single electron or hole spin trapped inside a semiconductor quantum dot forms the foundation for many proposed quantum logic devices. In group III-V materials, the resonance and coherence between two ground states of the single spin are inevitably affected by the lattice nuclear spins through the hyperfine interaction, while the dynamics of the single(More)
We show how a spin interaction between electrons localized in neighboring quantum dots can be induced and controlled optically. The coupling is generated via virtual excitation of delocalized excitons and provides an efficient coherent control of the spins. This quantum manipulation can be realized in the adiabatic limit and is robust against decoherence by(More)