Duncan Smith-rohrberg

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In primates, long-range communication is often mediated by the use of ‘long’ (or ‘loud’) calls. Beyond the acoustic classification of these calls and descriptions of the behavioural context in which they are produced, few experimental studies have examined how species-typical information is encoded in the structure of these signals. We present the results(More)
An understanding of the acoustic cues that animals use to categorize their vocalizations has important implications for the way we design neuroethological investigations of auditory function. Compared to other species, we know relatively little about the kinds of acoustic features used by nonhuman primates to recognize and categorize vocalizations. To(More)
BACKGROUND Directly administered antiretroviral therapy (DAART) is a promising intervention for improving HIV outcomes among active drug users, but the elements associated with successful DAART programs remain largely unknown. This study aimed to assess the impact of colocated medical, case management, and referral to substance abuse services (DAART-Plus)(More)
Before introducing an HIV testing protocol into correctional facilities, the unique nature of these environments must be taken into account. We analyze three testing strategies that have been used in correctional settings--mandatory, voluntary, and routine "opt out" testing--and conclude that routine testing is most likely beneficial to inmates, the(More)
In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness of ascitic fluid interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) assays in the diagnosis of tuberculous ascites. Ascitic fluid from patients with proven tuberculosis (TB) (n = 31) and non-TB ascites (n = 88) was analyzed for IFN-gamma and ADA levels. Areas under the(More)
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE Splenic tuberculosis (TB) is a less common but important manifestation of abdominal TB, especially in India and other developing countries. Its prevalence is increasing with the epidemic of HIV-TB co-infection and subsequent rise in extrapulmonary TB. The range of radiological manifestations of splenic TB is poorly described. Here, we(More)
Untreated opioid dependence is a major obstacle to the successful treatment and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this review, we examine the interwoven epidemics of HIV infection and opioid dependence and the emerging role of buprenorphine in improving HIV treatment outcomes among infected individuals, as well as its role in(More)
Opiate dependence among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients has been associated with negative clinical outcomes, yet few affected patients receive appropriate and coordinated treatment for both conditions. The introduction of buprenorphine maintenance therapy into HIV care settings provides an opportunity for providers to integrate(More)
BACKGROUND Sarcoidosis is an increasingly important condition in developing countries, including those with a high prevalence of tuberculosis. The tuberculin skin test (TST) is one test used in distinguishing these two granulomatous conditions. It has been shown that a negative TST is highly sensitive for sarcoidosis. This retrospective study set out to(More)