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Therapeutic irradiation of the brain is associated with a number of adverse effects, including cognitive impairment. Although the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive injury is unknown, it may involve loss of neural precursor cells from the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus and alterations in new cell production (neurogenesis).(More)
Advances in the management of pediatric brain tumors have increased survival rates in children, but their quality of life is impaired due to cognitive deficits that arise from irradiation. The pathogenesis of these deficits remains unknown, but may involve reduced neurogenesis within the hippocampus. To determine the acute radiosensitivity of the dentate(More)
BACKGROUND Most retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) convey contrast and motion information to visual brain centers. Approximately 2% of RGCs are intrinsically photosensitive (ipRGCs), express melanopsin and are necessary for light to modulate specific physiological processes in mice. The ipRGCs directly target the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) to photoentrain(More)
PURPOSE In the Gbeta5(-/-) mouse, the electroretinogram (ERG) b-wave is absent, and the R7 subfamily of regulators of G protein signaling (RGS), which includes RGS6, -7, -9, and -11, is downregulated. Mutant mouse strains deficient in RGS7 or -11 were characterized, and the SG711 strain which is deficient in both proteins was examined, to learn whether the(More)
During treatment of brain tumors, some head and neck tumors, and other diseases, like arteriovenous malformations, the normal brain is exposed to ionizing radiation. While high radiation doses can cause severe tissue destruction, lower doses can induce cognitive impairments without signs of overt tissue damage. The underlying pathogenesis of these(More)
Development of visual system circuitry requires the formation of precise synaptic connections between neurons in the retina and brain. For example, axons from retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) form synapses onto neurons within subnuclei of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) [i.e., the dorsal LGN (dLGN), ventral LGN (vLGN), and intergeniculate leaflet (IGL)].(More)
Clinical and experimental data show that traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced cognitive changes are often manifest as deficits in hippocampal-dependent functions of spatial information processing. The underlying mechanisms for these effects have remained elusive, although recent studies have suggested that the changes in neuronal precursor cells in the(More)
Two chimpanzees, 1535 and 1536, became persistently infected following inoculation with RNA transcripts from cDNA clones of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Analysis of the HCV genomes from both animals showed an accumulation of amino acid substitutions over time. The appearance of substitutions in the envelope genes was associated with increased antienvelope(More)
The hypothesis that the presence of macrocephaly might vary with the specific growth chart used was tested by using the Nellahus, CDC, and recent Rollins et al revision head circumference charts to plot the head circumferences of 253 children with neurodevelopmental disorders and with ages between 12 to 36 months; of these children, 59 had a diagnosis of(More)
Recent advances in our understanding of R7RGS proteins have benefited from studies involving the fifth member of the Gβ family (Gβ5) that is found throughout the visual system. Unlike conventional Gβsthat form dimers with Gγ, Gβ5 partners with R7RGS proteins, which contain the G-protein gamma-like (GGL) domain, to act as a GTPase accelerating protein (GAP)(More)