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Metaphase chromatids are believed to consist of loops of chromatin anchored to a central scaffold, of which a major component is the decatenatory enzyme DNA topoisomerase II. Silver impregnation selectively stains an axial element of metaphase and anaphase chromatids; but we find that in earlier stages of mitosis, silver staining reveals an initially(More)
The enzyme DNA topoisomerase II, which removes the catenations formed between the DNA molecules of sister chromatids during replication and is a structural component of chromosome cores, is needed for chromosome condensation in yeast and in Xenopus extracts. Inhibitors of topoisomerase II arrest mammalian cells before mitosis in the G2 phase of the cell(More)
Rad23 is a highly conserved protein involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER) that associates with the proteasome via its N-terminus. Its C-terminal ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to humans. However, the cellular function of UBA domains is not completely understood. Recently, RAD23 and DDI1, both DNA(More)
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes RAD23 and DDI1 were identified in a screen for multicopy suppressors of the temperature-sensitivity of a mutant allele of S. cerevisiae PDS1. Pds1 is a regulator of anaphase that needs to accumulate and then be degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway at the metaphase-anaphase transition for cells to progress normally(More)
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the metaphase-anaphase transition is initiated by the anaphase-promoting complex-dependent degradation of Pds1, whereby Esp1 is activated to promote sister chromatid separation. Although this is a fundamental step in the cell cycle, little is known about the regulation of Esp1 and how loss of cohesion is coordinated with(More)
The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is essential throughout the life cycle of a cell. This system employs an astounding number of proteins to ubiquitylate and to deliver protein substrates to the proteasome for their degradation. At the heart of this process is the large and growing family of ubiquitin receptor proteins. Within this family is an intensely(More)
The S-phase checkpoint kinases Mec1 and Rad53 in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are activated in response to replication stress that induces replication fork arrest. In the absence of a functional S-phase checkpoint, stalled replication forks collapse and give rise to chromosome breakage. In an attempt to better understand replication dynamics(More)
Proteins containing ubiquitin-like (UBL) and ubiquitin associated (UBA) domains have been suggested to shuttle ubiquitinated substrates to the proteasome for degradation. There are three UBL-UBA containing proteins in budding yeast: Ddi1, Dsk2 and Rad23, which have been demonstrated to play regulatory roles in targeting ubiquitinated substrates to the(More)
Yeast temperature-sensitive mutants of DNA topoisomerase II are incapable of chromosome condensation and anaphase chromatid segregation. In mammalian cells, topoisomerase II inhibitors such as etoposide (VP-16-123) have similar effects. Unfortunately, conclusions drawn from work with mammalian cells have been limited by the fact that the standard inhibitors(More)