Duncan Howie

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The T and natural killer (NK) cell-specific gene SAP (SH2D1A) encodes a 'free SH2 domain' that binds a specific tyrosine motif in the cytoplasmic tail of SLAM (CD150) and related cell surface proteins. Mutations in SH2D1A cause the X-linked lymphoproliferative disease, a primary immunodeficiency. Here we report that a second gene encoding a free SH2 domain,(More)
Levels of anti-inflammatory extracellular adenosine are controlled by the sequential action of the ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73, whose expression in CD4(+) T cells has been associated with natural regulatory T cells (nTregs). We here show that CD73 expression on activated murine CD4(+) T cells is induced by TGF-β independently of Foxp3 expression,(More)
Infectious tolerance describes the process of CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) converting naïve T cells to become additional Tregs. We show that antigen-specific Tregs induce, within skin grafts and dendritic cells, the expression of enzymes that consume at least 5 different essential amino acids (EAAs). T cells fail to proliferate in response to antigen(More)
Our understanding of the X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) has advanced significantly in the last two years. The gene that is altered in the condition (SAP/SH2D1A) has been cloned and its protein crystal structure solved. At least two sets of target molecules for this small SH2 domain-containing protein have been identified: A family of(More)
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a rare immune disorder commonly triggered by infection with Epstein-Barr virus. Major disease manifestations include fatal acute infectious mononucleosis, B-cell lymphoma, and progressive dys-gammaglobulinemia. SAP/SH2D1A, the product of the gene mutated in XLP, is a small protein that comprises a single SH2(More)
SAP (SLAM-associated protein) is a small lymphocyte-specific signalling molecule that is defective or absent in patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP). Consistent with its single src homology 2 (SH2) domain architecture and unusually high affinity for SLAM (also called CD150), SAP has been suggested to function by blocking binding of(More)
Activated lamina propria T cells responding to luminal Ags are thought to be important in celiac disease and Crohn's disease, and T cells responding to foreign MHC products are also important in intestinal graft-vs-host disease and intestinal transplant rejection. However, the mechanism(s) by which T cells mediate damage in the gut is not known. We have(More)
Human CD150 (SLAM) is a glycoprotein expressed on the surface of T, B, natural killer, and dendritic cells. The extracellular domain of CD150 is the receptor for measles virus and CD150 acts as a co-activator on T and B cells. We characterized the mouse and human CD150 genes, each of which comprises seven exons spanning approximately 32 kb. Mouse CD150 mRNA(More)
SAP, the gene that is altered or absent in the X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP), encodes a small protein that comprises a single SH2 domain and binds to the cell-surface protein SLAM which is present on activated or memory T and B cells. Because defective NK cell activity also has been reported in XLP patients, we studied the SAP gene in NK(More)