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Virtually all models of the household have the minimal implication that the equilibrium allocation of resources is Pareto efficient. Within many African households, agricultural production is simultaneously carried out on many plots controlled by different members of the household. Pareto efficiency implies that variable factors should be allocated(More)
Associations have been found between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The contribution of air pollution to atherosclerosis that underlies many cardiovascular diseases has not been investigated. Animal data suggest that ambient particulate matter (PM) may contribute to atherogenesis. We used data on 798(More)
This study examines the impact of 4 health measures on wages of urban workers in Brazil. Data are obtained from the 1974-75 Estudo Nacional da Despesa Familiar among a sample population over 14 years old for wages earned by respondents 15-50 years old. The 4 health measures include height, body mass index (weight divided by height squared), per capita(More)
BACKGROUND Whether exposure to air pollution adversely affects the growth of lung function during the period of rapid lung development that occurs between the ages of 10 and 18 years is unknown. METHODS In this prospective study, we recruited 1759 children (average age, 10 years) from schools in 12 southern California communities and measured lung(More)
The relationship of bronchitic symptoms to ambient particulate matter and to particulate elemental and organic carbon (OC), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and other gaseous pollutants was examined in a cohort of children with asthma in 12 Southern California communities. Symptoms, assessed yearly by questionnaire from 1996 to 1999, were associated with the yearly(More)
Despite the yield of recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies, the identified variants explain only a small proportion of the heritability of most complex diseases. This unexplained heritability could be partly due to gene--environment (G×E) interactions or more complex pathways involving multiple genes and exposures. This Review provides a tutorial on(More)
Results from studies of traffic and childhood asthma have been inconsistent, but there has been little systematic evaluation of susceptible subgroups. In this study, we examined the relationship of local traffic-related exposure and asthma and wheeze in southern California school children (5-7 years of age). Lifetime history of doctor-diagnosed asthma and(More)
A Brazilian household survey, ENDEF, in 1974-75 and the 1974 Informacoes Basicas Municipais (IBM) provided data for the analysis of the impact of community services and infrastructure and household characteristics on the logarithm of child height, standardized for age and gender. The sample was comprised of 36,974 children stratified by residential(More)