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High doses of ionizing radiation clearly produce deleterious consequences in humans, including, but not exclusively, cancer induction. At very low radiation doses the situation is much less clear, but the risks of low-dose radiation are of societal importance in relation to issues as varied as screening tests for cancer, the future of nuclear power,(More)
This paper develops a deterministic model of frequency distributions for energy imparted (total energy deposition) in small volumes similar to DNA molecules from high-energy ions of interest for space radiation protection and cancer therapy. Frequency distributions for energy imparted are useful for considering radiation quality and for modeling biological(More)
General correlations are found between the detailed spatial and temporal nature of the initial physical features of radiation insult and the likelihood of final biological consequences. These persist despite the chain of physical, chemical and biological processes that eliminate the vast majority of the early damage. Details of the initial conditions should(More)
When investigating the biological effects of ionizing radiation on the haemopoietic system, a confounding problem lies in possible differences between the biological effects of sparsely ionizing, low linear energy transfer radiation such as X-, beta- or gamma-rays, and densely ionizing, high linear energy transfer radiation such as alpha-particles. To(More)
We have demonstrated chromosomal instability in the clonal descendants of hemopoietic stem cells after irradiating murine bone marrow with alpha-particles. However, because cells that are irradiated by alpha-particles are defined by a Poisson distribution of individual particle traversals, there is an inevitable proportion of unirradiated cells in the(More)
PURPOSE A brief review is presented of the basic concepts in track structure and the relative merit of various theoretical approaches adopted in Monte-Carlo track-structure codes are examined. In the second part of the paper, a formal cluster analysis is introduced to calculate cluster-distance distributions. METHOD Total experimental ionization(More)
Modelling and calculations are presented as a first step towards mechanistic interpretation and prediction of radiation effects based on the spectrum of initial DNA damage produced by low energy electrons (100 eV-4.5 keV) that can be compared with experimental information. Relative yields of single and clustered strand breaks are presented in terms of(More)
Most quantitative models of radiation action in mammalian cells make the implicit assumption that all relevant repair processes proceed in a dose-independent manner. Thus it is implicitly assumed that the repair processes (1) follow totally unsaturated kinetics, (2) are not themselves inactivated by the radiation, and (3) are not enhanced by the presence of(More)
This paper presents data on modelling of DNA damage induced by electrons, protons and alpha-particles to provide an insight into factors which determine the biological effectiveness of radiations of high and low linear energy transfer (LET). These data include the yield of single- and double-strand breaks (ssb, dsb) and base damage in a cellular(More)
The average or amorphous track model uses the response of a system to gamma-rays and the radial distribution of dose about an ion's path to describe survival and other cellular endpoints from proton, heavy ion, and neutron irradiation. This model has been used for over 30 years to successfully fit many radiobiology data sets. We review several extensions of(More)