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Androgen receptor (AR) function is critical for the development of male reproductive organs, muscle, bone and other tissues. Functionally impaired AR results in androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). The interaction between AR and microRNA (miR) signaling pathways was examined to understand the role of miRs in AR function. Reduction of androgen levels in(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the role of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy- 5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA)/kainate excitatory amino acid receptors in the nucleus accumbens and the ventral pallidum in the hypermotility responses to amphetamine, caffeine and scopolamine. To accomplish this, we determined the effects of intracranial injections of(More)
Novel metabolic pathways initiated by the enzymatic action of CYP11A1 on 7DHC (7-dehydrocholesterol), ergosterol, vitamins D3 and D2 were characterized with help of chemical synthesis, UV and mass spectrometry and NMR analyses. The first pathway follows the sequence 7DHC→22(OH)7DHC → 20,22(OH)27DHC → 7DHP (7-dehydropregnenolone), which can further be(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether Compound 49b, a novel PKA-activating drug, can prevent diabetic-like changes in the rat retina through increased insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels. METHODS For the cell culture studies, we used both human retinal endothelial cells (REC) and retinal Müller cells in either 5 mM (normal) or 25 mM(More)
Tubulin dynamics is a promising target for new chemotherapeutic agents. The colchicine binding site is one of the most important pockets for potential tubulin polymerization destabilizers. Colchicine binding site inhibitors (CBSI) exert their biological effects by inhibiting tubulin assembly and suppressing microtubule formation. A large number of molecules(More)
BACKGROUND Cytochrome P450scc metabolizes vitamin D3 to 20-hydroxyvitamin D3 (20(OH)D3) and 20,23(OH)(2)D3, as well as 1-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1alpha,20-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,20(OH)(2)D3). It also cleaves the side chain of 7-dehydrocholesterol producing 7-dehydropregnenolone (7DHP), which can be transformed to 20(OH)7DHP. UVB induces transformation of the(More)
The effect of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) was studied on dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5HT) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons in mouse brain and on NE neurons of mouse heart. MPTP (45 mg/kg) was administered s.c. to mice twice daily for 2 consecutive days. This dosage regimen produced a decrease in the(More)
To evaluate abilities of 2-aryl-4-benzoyl-imidazoles (ABI) to overcome multidrug resistance (MDR), define their cellular target, and assess in vivo antimelanoma efficacy. MDR cell lines that overexpressed P-glycoprotein, MDR-associated proteins, and breast cancer resistance protein were used to evaluate ABI ability to overcome MDR. Cell cycle analysis,(More)
PURPOSE To measure key proteins involved in insulin resistance in retinal Müller cells. METHODS Cells known as retinal Müller cells were cultured in normal (5 mM) or high glucose (25 mM) to mimic a diabetic condition. Cells were treated with 50 nM Compound 49b, a novel β-adrenergic receptor agonist. Additional cells were treated with small interfering RNA(More)
Pregna-5,7-dienes and their hydroxylated derivatives can be formed in vivo when there is a deficiency in 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) Delta-reductase function, e.g., Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS). Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation induces photoconversion of 7-DHC to vitamin D3, lumisterol3 and tachysterol3. Two epimers (20R and 20S) of(More)