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Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) is the most highly conserved signaling node of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and represents a potential therapeutic target for a number of diseases associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress. IRE1 activates the XBP-1 transcription factor by site-specific cleavage of two hairpin loops within its mRNA to facilitate(More)
In situ hybridization was used to document the distribution of mRNA encoding six subunit isoforms of non-N-methyl D-aspartic acid (NMDA) glutamate receptors (GluR1, GluR2, GluR3, GluR4, GluR5 and GluR6) in the inner ears of embryonic, postnatal and adult rats. GluR2 and GluR3 expression in the spiral ganglion appeared well before birth, and reached adult(More)
The expression of mRNAs encoding five putative non-NMDA glutamate receptors was investigated using in situ hybridization with radiolabeled riboprobes. Hybridization was observed in spiral ganglion neurons with probes complementary to mRNA products of the glutamate receptor genes GluR2 and GluR3. No specific hybridization was observed with probes for GluR1,(More)
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