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Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide that is the active ingredient in the pesticide Icon 6.2 FS which is applied to rice seeds targeting the rice water weevil. An arthropod-selective insecticide, fipronil blocks the GABA-gated chloride channel and is unique in that several of its degradation products have been indicated to be equal or more potent than(More)
The occurrence of environmental pharmaceutical products has recently received considerable attention, but impacts on the aquatic environment are largely unknown. Fluoxetine is a widely prescribed antidepressant and acts physiologically as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). To determine its potential to disrupt teleost reproductive function,(More)
The environmental presence of the oral contraceptive norethindrone (NET) has been reported and shown to have reproductive effects in fish at environmentally realistic exposure levels. The current study examined bioconcentration potential of NET in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Fathead minnows were exposed to(More)
Understanding the potential for human and veterinary pharmaceuticals to accumulate in the tissues of biota is a topic of increasing importance in the pharmaceutical risk assessment process. However, few data are available in the literature that compare the ability of laboratory bioconcentration studies to predict field tissue concentrations. To begin to(More)
Ecological risk assessments of pharmaceuticals are currently difficult because little-to-no aquatic hazard and exposure information exists in the peer-reviewed literature for most therapeutics. Recently several studies have identified fluoxetine, a widely prescribed antidepressant, in municipal effluents. To evaluate the potential aquatic toxicity of(More)
Synthetic progestins, such as Norethindrone (NET), are common ingredients in oral contraceptives and in treatment for post-menopausal problems. Given the widespread use of oral contraceptives and post-menopausal treatments, several reports have targeted and identified progestins in aquatic environments. In fish, progestins play an important role in the(More)
Beta adrenergic receptor antagonists (beta-Blockers) are frequently prescribed medications in the United States and have been identified in European municipal wastewater effluent, however no studies to date have investigated these compounds in United States wastewater effluent. Municipal wastewater effluent was collected from treatment facilities in(More)
One class of pharmaceutical compounds identified in U.S. and European waters are the B-adrenergic receptor blocking compounds (B-blockers). However, little information is available on the potential aquatic toxicity of these compounds. Therefore, Hyalella azteca, Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Oryias latipes (Japanese medaka) were exposed to(More)