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—Small talk is an important social lubricant that helps people, especially strangers, initiate conversations and make friends with each other in physical proximity. However, due to difficulties in quickly identifying significant topics of common interest, real-world small talk tends to be superficial. The mass popularity of mobile phones can help improve(More)
As a promising approach to end-user computing, programming by demonstration (PBD) techniques have been explored by many researchers in single-user applications. This paper investigates how PBD techniques can be used to support end-user customization of groupware tools. In collaborative applications, complex semantic relationships can emerge unanticipatedly(More)
Multi-user applications generally lag behind in features or compatibility with single-user applications. As a result, users are often not motivated to abandon their favorite single-user applications for groupware features that are less frequently used. A well-accepted approach, <i>collaboration transparency</i>, is able to convert off-the-shelf single-user(More)
Operational transformation (OT) is a promising technique for supporting collaboration using mobile devices because it allows users to work on local data replicas even in a disconnected mode. However, as work goes mobile, a large number of operations may accumulate, defying the capacity of current OT algorithms that are mostly designed for real-time group(More)
Consistency control is critical for the correct functioning of distributed collaboration support systems. A large number of consistency control methods have appeared in the literature with different design tradeoffs and usability implications. However, there has been relatively little work on how to accommodate different protocols and variations in one(More)
Current Web 2.0 services are making mass collaboration a reality. Using a Web browser, people can participate in cooperative work anytime, anywhere from any computing device as long as there is an Internet connection. Lying in the heart of some well-known services is an optimistic consistency control technique called operational transformation (OT). This(More)