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Small talk is an important social lubricant that helps people, especially strangers, initiate conversations and make friends with each other in physical proximity. However, due to difficulties in quickly identifying significant topics of common interest, real-world small talk tends to be superficial. The mass popularity of mobile phones can help improve the(More)
Multi-user applications generally lag behind in features or compatibility with single-user applications. As a result, users are often not motivated to abandon their favorite single-user applications for groupware features that are less frequently used. A well-accepted approach, <i>collaboration transparency</i>, is able to convert off-the-shelf single-user(More)
Consistency maintenance is a critical and challenging issue in many interactive groupware applications that can be modeled as group editors. This paper addresses two open consistency problems: divergence and operation effects relation violation. While the former has been partly solved, the latter has never been addressed in any published work. We propose a(More)
As a promising approach to end-user computing, programming by demonstration (PBD) techniques have been explored by many researchers in single-user applications. This paper investigates how PBD techniques can be used to support end-user customization of groupware tools. In collaborative applications, complex semantic relationships can emerge unanticipatedly(More)
Traditional concurrency control methods such as locking and serialization are not suitable for distributed interactive applications that demand fast local response. Operational transformation (OT) is the standard solution to concurrency control and consistency maintenance in group editors, an important class of interactive groupware applications. It(More)
Consistency control is critical for the correct functioning of distributed collaboration support systems. A large number of consistency control methods have appeared in the literature with different design tradeoffs and usability implications. However, there has been relatively little work on how to accommodate different protocols and variations in one(More)
Operational transformation (OT) is a promising technique for supporting collaboration using mobile devices because it allows users to work on local data replicas even in a disconnected mode. However, as work goes mobile, a large number of operations may accumulate, defying the capacity of current OT algorithms that are mostly designed for real-time group(More)
In a previous paper[11], we presented COCA (Collaborative Objects Coordination Architecture) as a generic framework for developing collaborative systems. COCA advocates separation of coordination policies from general-purpose computations in collaborative systems so that the former can be modeled in a high-level specification language. Reuse of both(More)