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Interionic distances are shorter in concentrated ionic solutions, thus instigating the interaction and overlap of hydration shells, as ions become separated by only one or two layers of water molecules. The simultaneous interaction of water with two oppositely charged ions has, so far, only been investigated by computer simulation studies, because the(More)
An inhomogeneous system of aggregates of Co(3)O(4) nanocrystallites dispersed in an amorphous SiO(2) matrix has been studied. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy reveal a bimodal distribution of crystallite sizes, smaller nanocrystallites with dimension below 10 nm and larger nanocrystallites of about 20 nm. The Co(3)O(4) nanocrystallites enter(More)
Freezing is usually used for preservation and storage of biological samples; however, this process may have some adverse effects such as cell membrane damage. Aquaporin (AQP), a water channel protein, has been suggested to play some roles for cryopreservation although its molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that membrane damage caused by(More)
In what appears to be a trivial operation in which the averaged spectrum of solvent is subtracted from the spectra of solutions, can be a misleading step in improving reproducibility of vibrational spectra. Near-infrared spectra of pure water and glycine solutions were used to quantify instrumental and spectral variations, and examine its influence on the(More)
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