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Fig-pollinating wasps have provided model systems for developing and testing theories of the evolution of mutualism, sex allocation, and precision of adaptation. With few exceptions, previous studies have assumed one species of pollinator wasp per host fig species. Here we report genetic data demonstrating the coexistence of previously undetected cryptic(More)
We surveyed for the presence and identity of Wolbachia in 44 species of chalcid wasps associated with 18 species of Panamanian figs. We used existing detailed knowledge of the population structures of the host wasps, as well as the ecological and evolutionary relationships among them, to explore the relevance of each of these factors to Wolbachia prevalence(More)
We used recently developed microsatellites to directly estimate inbreeding levels in two pairs of coexisting cryptic fig wasp species ('Pegoscapus hoffmeyeri sp. A and sp. B', 'P. gemellus sp. A and sp. B'). Previous tests of Hamilton's local mate competition (LMC) theory in fig wasps have used the number of dead foundresses in a fig fruit to indirectly(More)
Allodapine bees provide extraordinary systems for investigating the evolution of cooperation and particularly the division of reproduction in animal societies. We present the first microsatellite primers for two native Australian species ( Exoneura nigrescens and E. robusta ; Hymenoptera: Apidae: Xylocopinae) which allow the accurate determination of(More)
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