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The mechanism of function of the bacterial flagellar switch, which determines the direction of flagellar rotation and is essential for chemotaxis, has remained an enigma for many years. Here we show that the switch complex associates with the membrane-bound respiratory protein fumarate reductase (FRD). We provide evidence that FRD binds to preparations of(More)
The role of zinc, an essential element for normal brain function, in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is poorly understood. On one hand, physiological and genetic evidence from transgenic mouse models supports its pathogenic role in promoting the deposition of the amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) in senile plaques. On the other hand, levels of(More)
In contrast to porphyrins and chlorins, the direct metalation of bacteriochlorins is difficult. Nevertheless, Cu2+ and Zn2+ can be introduced into bacteriopheophytin in acetic acid, whereas Cd2+ can be inserted in dimethylformamide. The former reactions depend on the substituents of the isocyclic ring: they are facilitated if enolization of the â-ketoester(More)
We introduce LH1beta24, a minimal 24 amino acid polypeptide that binds and assembles bacteriochlorophylls (BChls) in micelles of octyl beta-glucoside (OG) into complexes with spectral properties that resemble those of B820, a universal intermediate in the assembly of native purple bacterial light-harvesting complexes (LHs). LH1beta24 was designed by a(More)
Characterizing membrane proteins by sedimentation equilibrium is challenging because detergents and/or lipid molecules, usually required for solubilization, form a complex with the protein. The most common way to overcome this problem is Tanford and Reynolds' density matching method, which eliminates the buoyant mass contributions of detergents/lipids by(More)
We have designed polypeptides combining selected lipophilic (LP) and hydrophilic (HP) sequences that assemble into amphiphilic (AP) alpha-helical bundles to reproduce key structure characteristics and functional elements of natural membrane proteins. The principal AP maquette (AP1) developed here joins 14 residues of a heme binding sequence from a(More)
Photosystem I is a highly efficient and potent light-induced reductase that is considered to be an appealing target for integration into hybrid solar fuel production systems. However, rapid transport of multiple electrons from the reducing end of photosystem I to downstream processes in vivo is limited by the diffusion of its native redox partner ferredoxin(More)
Cation radicals of substituted chlorophyll (Chl) a molecules were characterized by EPR and ENDOR spectroscopy. The effect of substitutions of the vinyl group at position 3 and the carbomethoxy group at 13 as well as the replacement of the central magnesium atom by zinc were investigated. All major hyperfine coupling constants could be determined and(More)
Decades of research on the physical processes and chemical reaction-pathways in photosynthetic enzymes have resulted in an extensive database of kinetic information. Recently, this database has been augmented by a variety of high and medium resolution crystal structures of key photosynthetic enzymes that now include the two photosystems (PSI and PSII) of(More)