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Recent advances in high-field MRI have dramatically improved the visualization of human brain anatomy in vivo. Most notably, in cortical gray matter, strong contrast variations have been observed that appear to reflect the local laminar architecture. This contrast has been attributed to subtle variations in the magnetic properties of brain tissue, possibly(More)
Despite similarities between tumor-initiating cells with stem-like properties (TICs) and normal neural stem cells, we hypothesized that there may be differences in their differentiation potentials. We now demonstrate that both bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-mediated and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)-mediated Jak/STAT-dependent astroglial(More)
The subventricular zone (SVZ) is a continual source of neural progenitors throughout adulthood. Many of the animal models designed to study the migration of these cells from the ventricle to places of interest like the olfactory bulb or an injury site require histology to localize precursor cells. Here, it is demonstrated that up to 30% of the neural(More)
During cortical development, embryonic neurons migrate from germinal zones near the ventricle into the cortical plate, where they organize into layers. Mechanisms that direct neuronal migration may include molecules that act as chemoattractants. In rats, GABA, which localizes near the target destination for migrating cortical neurons, stimulates embryonic(More)
GABA emerges as a trophic signal during rat neocortical development in which it modulates proliferation of neuronal progenitors in the ventricular/subventricular zone (VZ/SVZ) and mediates radial migration of neurons from the VZ/SVZ to the cortical plate/subplate (CP/SP) region. In this study we investigated the role of GABA in the earliest phases of(More)
CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs are important in the maintenance of immunological self tolerance and in the prevention of autoimmune diseases. As the CD4(+)CD25(+) T cell population in patients with human T cell lymphotropic virus type I-associated (HTLV-I-associated) myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) has been shown to be a major reservoir for this(More)
The Notch family of proteins plays an integral role in determining cell fates, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. We show that Notch-1 and its ligands, Delta-like-1 and Jagged-1, are overexpressed in many glioma cell lines and primary human gliomas. Immunohistochemistry of a primary human glioma tissue array shows the presence in the(More)
Developmental processes mediating the initiation of lineage commitment from self-renewing neural stem cells (NSCs) remain mostly unclear because of the persisting ambiguity in identifying true NSCs from proliferative lineage-restricted progenitors (LRPs), which are directly or indirectly derived from NSCs. Our multilineage immunohistochemical analyses of(More)
Whole cell patch-clamp recordings using Cl(-)-filled pipettes revealed more negative levels of baseline current and associated current variance in embryonic rat hippocampal neurons co-cultured on a monolayer of astrocytes than those cultured on poly-D-lysine. These effects were mimicked by culturing neurons on poly-D-lysine in astrocyte-conditioned medium(More)
GABA is formed primarily from decarboxylation of glutamate by a family of cytosolic and membrane-bound GAD enzymes. In the adult, GAD-derived GABA sustains the vitality of the central nervous system (CNS), since blockage of GAD rapidly leads to convulsions and death. In plants, cytosolic GAD synthesizes GABA in response to hormones and environmental stress.(More)