Dr. Shelly Ludwig

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The hypothalamus plays a central role in the integrated regulation of energy homeostasis and body weight, and a number of hypothalamic neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide Y (ref. 1), galanin, CRH (ref. 3) and GLP-1 (ref. 4), have been implicated in the mediation of these effects. To discover new hypothalmic peptides involved in the regulation of body(More)
Several lines of investigation suggest that the hypothalamic neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) regulates body weight in mammals. Obese mice lacking functional leptin overexpress the MCH message in the fed or fasted state. Acute intracerebroventricular injection of MCH increases energy intake in rats. Mice lacking the MCH gene are lean. To(More)
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) demonstrate opposite actions on skin coloration in teleost fish. Both peptides are present in the mammalian brain, although their specific physiological roles remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined the interactions between MCH and alpha-MSH after(More)
Two-dimensional crystals of cholera toxin bound to receptors in a lipid membrane give diffraction extending to 15 A resolution. Three-dimensional structure determination reveals a ring of five B subunits on the membrane surface, with one-third of the A subunit occupying the center of the ring. The remaining mass of the A subunit appears to penetrate the(More)
Hybridoma-derived monoclonal antibodies were raised to enterotoxins of the cholera family and to chimeric B-subunit proteins in which individual amino acid residues of a heat-labile, cholera-related enterotoxin from an Escherichia coli strain of porcine origin (P-LT) were substituted with corresponding residues from such an enterotoxin from an E. coli(More)
A growing body of evidence indicates that a number of peptides expressed in the mammalian hypothalamus are involved in the regulation of food intake and energy balance. Among these, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are potent appetite stimulants, whereas alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), neurotensin, and(More)
The product of the obese (ob) gene, leptin, is a secreted protein that is important in the regulation of body weight. Mice with mutations in the ob gene are obese and diabetic and manifest reduced physical as well as metabolic activity. In this study, we tested the possibility that mutations in the OB gene may contribute to human obesity. We report the(More)
The purpose of this study was to compare the endoscopic and histologic findings in gastric mucosa, the total bile acids in the gastric contents, and the gastric emptying of a solid food in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients after vagotomy and antrectomy. Eleven male patients with typical symptoms of alkaline reflux were compared to six asymptomatic(More)
Since Jerne proposed a "network" theory of immune regulation, the properties of anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-IdAb) have been investigated widely. Anti-IdAb raised against antibodies to a variety of ligands have been shown to bind the ligands' receptors. Thus, the combining site of an anti-IdAb may contain information regarding the three-dimensional(More)
Two obstacles hinder the development of an AIDS vaccine: (1) the AIDS virus exhibits extensive amino acid heterogeneity between isolates and (2) antibodies elicited by virus during the course of natural infection are often non-neutralizing. A vaccine designed to induce anti-idiotypic antibodies against the virus' receptor on T-cells, T4, should, in(More)