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Despite the wide variety of health care systems in industrialized democracies, a universal paradigm for financing, organization, and macromanagement has been emerging through reforms of the past decade. The policies within this paradigm attempt to promote equity, social efficiency, and consumer satisfaction by combining the advantages of public finance(More)
From the mid-1990s citizens in Belgium, Germany, Israel, the Netherlands and Switzerland have a guaranteed periodic choice among risk-bearing sickness funds, who are responsible for purchasing their care or providing them with medical care. The rationale of this arrangement is to stimulate the sickness funds to improve efficiency in health care production(More)
Low concentrations of trifluoperazine (TFP) reversibly inhibited vegetative growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The cell cycle was analysed by flow cytometry using haploid a cells synchronized by alpha-factor arrest and several temperature-sensitive cell division cycle mutants (cdc). Cells were pulse-labelled with fluorescein-labelled concanavalin A(More)
The reforms that have affected the Russian health care system since the breakup of the Soviet Union, principally those in the general administration of the Russian Federation, have suffered from inconsistency and the absence of a strategy. The various reforms have caused a shift from a national health system characterized by highly centralized management(More)
The conventional wisdom says that because the cost of health care for the aged is more than that of the young at any time, there is a positive relationship between the aging or higher life expectancy of the population and aggregate health care spending. It is difficult, however, to find evidence to support this argument. We present a simple framework that(More)
On June 15, 1994, the Israeli Parliament voted to enact the National Health Insurance bill (NHI). The bill marks the end of a process that lasted for virtually as long as Israel's almost 50 year history. Israel's attempts at health reform began long before the current spate of reforms in many Western countries. Faced with many of the same problems of(More)
This paper outlines some general lessons developing nations can draw from the health system reform experiences of developed nations. Using the experiences of developed countries, developing countries should be better able to anticipate socio-economic changes and choose an optimal path for their health systems development to accompany those changes. Most(More)
The paper suggests a hedonic prices approach to estimate the cost of hospital services. It applies this approach to Israeli data as a first approximation of hospitalization costs in that country. In the absence of accounting data, this approach enables us to estimate the relative cost of basic hospital services, how hospital characteristics affect cost and(More)
10.1056/nejmp0908269 nejm.org e46(1) average, Americans work almost 2 months a year to pay their medical bills — nearly twice as long as the average Israeli does. Reflecting higher U.S. earnings and incomes, as well as the U.S. population’s older average age, these figures translate into per capita U.S. spending (standardized for age) amounting to more than(More)
Two phenothiazine compounds, trifluoperazine and chlorpromazine, inhibited growth in vitro of the five most common pathogenic yeasts, with MICs ranging from 10 to 40 micrograms/ml. Daily intraperitoneal injections of trifluoperazine (4 to 7 mg/kg of body weight) increased the survival of mice experimentally infected with Candida albicans or Cryptococcus(More)