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A new set of extrachromosomal Dictyostelium expression vectors is presented that can be modified according to the experimental needs with minimal cloning efforts. To achieve this, the vector consists of four functional regions that are separated by unique restriction sites, (1) an Escherichia coli replication region, and regions for (2) replication, (3)(More)
Under normal conditions, the Arp2/3 complex activator SCAR/WAVE controls actin polymerization in pseudopods, whereas Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) assembles actin at clathrin-coated pits. We show that, unexpectedly, Dictyostelium discoideum SCAR knockouts could still spread, migrate, and chemotax using pseudopods driven by the Arp2/3 complex. In(More)
WASP family proteins control actin polymerization by activating the Arp2/3 complex. Several subfamilies exist, but their regulation and physiological roles are not well understood, nor is it even known if all subfamilies have been identified. Our extensive search reveals few novel WASP family proteins. The WASP, WASH, and SCAR/WAVE subfamilies are(More)
The mechanism of eukaryotic chemotaxis remains unclear despite intensive study. The most frequently described mechanism acts through attractants causing actin polymerization, in turn leading to pseudopod formation and cell movement. We recently proposed an alternative mechanism, supported by several lines of data, in which pseudopods are made by a(More)
BACKGROUND The Scar/WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) drives lamellipodia assembly via the Arp2/3 complex, whereas the Arp2/3 activator N-WASP is not essential for 2D migration but is increasingly implicated in 3D invasion. It is becoming ever more apparent that 2D and 3D migration utilize the actin cytoskeletal machinery differently. RESULTS We discovered(More)
In eukaryotic chemotaxis, the mechanisms connecting external signals to the motile apparatus remain unclear. The role of the lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP₃) has been particularly controversial. PIP₃ has many cellular roles, notably in growth control and macropinocytosis as well as cell motility. Here we show that PIP₃ is not only(More)
Chemotaxis is the ability of cells to move in the direction of an external gradient of signaling molecules. Cells are guided by actin-filled protrusions in the front, whereas myosin filaments retract the rear of the cell. Previous work demonstrated that chemotaxis of unpolarized amoeboid Dictyostelium discoideum cells is mediated by two parallel pathways,(More)
Dictyostelium contains two guanylyl cyclases, GCA, a 12-transmembrane enzyme, and sGC, a homologue of mammalian soluble adenylyl cyclase. sGC provides nearly all chemoattractant-stimulated cGMP formation and is essential for efficient chemotaxis toward cAMP. We show that in resting cells the major fraction of the sGC-GFP fusion protein localizes to the(More)
During chemotaxis, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP(3)) accumulates at the leading edge of a eukaryotic cell, where it induces the formation of pseudopodia. PIP(3) has been suggested to be the compass of cells navigating in gradients of signaling molecules. Recent observations suggest that chemotaxis is more complex than previously anticipated.(More)
WASH causes actin to polymerize on vesicles involved in retrograde traffic and exocytosis. It is found within a regulatory complex, but the physiological roles of the other four members are unknown. Here we present genetic analysis of the subunits' individual functions in Dictyostelium. Mutants in each subunit are completely blocked in exocytosis. All(More)